# -Introduction about productivity andproduction in a hospital food system -discuss how productivity ismeasured -find a common problem in a hospitalfood system such as, Low productivity levels of...

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-Introduction about productivity andproduction in a hospital food system

-discuss how productivity ismeasured

-find a common problem in a hospitalfood system such as, Low productivity levels of labor; provide 1 or 2 reference(evidence) that it is a problem

- provide reasons for why it is aproblem

- useThe decision making process Identificationof the problem

• Developmentof decision criteria or statements describing the environment after theproblem is solved.
• Identificationof alternatives
• Selectionone of a model to use in evaluating the alternatives that will solve theproblem. Models with differinglevels of complexity include:
• Verbal models, a spoken or written tool that expressesthe relationships between variables.
• Schematic models show a pictorial relationship between oramong variables. An example is a plan of a building or department.
• Iconic models are scaled physical replicas of objectsor processes. An airplane model being tested in a wind tunnel is anexample.
• Mathematical modelsshow functionalrelationships amongvariables. A math equation using variables x, y, and z is amathematical model. Examples ofeach type of model will be given in class.
• Datacollection to be used for each alternative’s evaluation. , seeking information concerning eachalternative.
• Evaluationof the data using the model selected.At this step, we put all the alternatives together and look at theresults in terms of the original decision criteria established at thebeginning.
• Finalselection of the alternative is made at this point and implemented. We hope that this solves the problem, tobe sure we go to the final step, and that is
• Evaluationof the selected alternative. Aftera time, we go back and evaluate. Isthe problem truly solved or have we just taken care of a symptom?
Answered Same DayDec 20, 2021

## Solution

Robert answered on Dec 20 2021
Introduction about productivity and production in a hospital food system
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Productivity and Production in a Hospital
Running Head: PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION IN A HOSPITAL
Productivity and Production in a Hospital
Institution:
Name:
Introduction about Productivity and Production in a Hospital Food System
Productivity in a hospital set up is the state at which quality of services are
ought forth to enhance the health of patients. The aim of having a food system in the hospital is to ensure patients’ are satisfied with minimally processed nutritious food that will aid their healing process. Food has a social aspect to it and this aspect should ensure that patients’ morale is improved. Food safety is a critical code for the hospital food to ensure further transmission of disease is controlled as much as possible (Hartwell & Edwards, 2001).
However, there are certain factors that contribute to low labor productivity or no productivity at all. This essay looks at two wide problem areas, poor working environment and common illness, which influence the outcome of productivity. The methodology of identifying problems is mainly from cu
ent existing literature. Although those affected by problems seek best solutions to problems, this essay identifies some possible solutions of problems discussed.
Bridge model has been utilized to select alternative that would offer solutions to the problem of low productivity in the hospital food system.
How Productivity is Measured
It is not easy to measure productivity as it is to define it. The following ways have been suggested; the meso and macroeconmic level from national accounts, which record the contribution of hospital services to the major aggregates of Gross Net Profit, Gross Domestic Product. Krugman (1994) measures productivity through number of hours worked and its contribution to the GDP. The method captures labor inputs better than just output per hospital employee. However, this statistical method poses a challenge to statistics. Different countries have varying models and basic statistical sources, which pose a challenge to validity in international comparability. Krugman also proposes considering different levels of employee’s education attainment and experience. Adjusted labor input measures are required to be tailor made/adjusted to the context of the human resources.
Productivity can be measured in terms of efficiency of hospital food system services. The links between productivity and efficiency can be sought through assumption that a hospital strategies for enhancing productivity are intended to increase profits, that is the difference between the hospital’s revenues and its production costs = pq – (plL + pkK+pcC) (Djellal & Gallouj, 2008).
Cost per patient day is one of the ways hospital productivity can be measured. Each day represents a unit of time through which a certain number (X) of patients make use of the hospital facility. Hence one day would represent X number of patient days. The purpose of this method is to estimate use of resources by the hospital food system.
Productivity can be calculated through conceptual framework that measures productivity in measure of output per unit of input in a given period. The value of the outputs is compared with the cost of the inputs (labor, material, and capital) to form a productivity index or an efficiency index.
Management evaluation tools that focus on productivity of employees in the hospital can measure productivity (Djellal & Fraidah, 2008). Through performance appraisals that outline employees’ tasks that constitute certain outcome indicators, productivity can be measured through visible indicators of outcomes. Another example of management tool is the time management tools which would assist the hospital food system to get work done round the clock. Managing time includes organizing and planning for the tangible and non-tangible aspects of work. The advantage of this tool is, getting most work done efficiently, reduce levels of stress that come with the job, improves employment relationships, employees are able to feel better about themselves and plan their own personal lives (Dodd & Sundheim, 2011)
Section One: Low Productivity Levels of Labo
Low productivity levels of labor are common challenges caused by various factors. Widespread factors include; common illnesses like depression and unfavorable working environments (managerial). Depression is a huge variable to determining constant production. It is said to occur along with illnesses like cancer, heart disease and chronic pain (Mental Health America, 2012). Work environment for human labor is an important factor to determine production. This factor touches on the issue of wellness of health professional and the effectiveness of care given to patients. Evidence suggests that the work environment is an important factor in the recruitment and retention of health workers (Wiskow, Al
eht & Pietro, 2010).
Disease and Illnesses of Health Personnel
In regards to burden of disease, most countries in the world have certain diseases, which are more prevalent in certain countries than others are. Thanks to rising technology and medicine, most of these diseases are manageable and people can continue in high productivity. According to the global disease burden report, chronic illnesses encompass 60% of the world’s total disease burden. Common chronic illnesses include, stroke, cancer, heart disease and infectious diseases include HIV and AIDS. With such alarming figures of disease affecting productive populations, it is worth considering how these diseases could affect levels of productivity, especially in work environments where health related policies have not been tailored into institution specific health policies.
Disease or illnesses affect overall human productivity. Taking a remote example of the United States, depression projects an excess of \$31 billion per year ultimately affecting production time of human labor. Dewa, Thompsons & Jacob (2011) study ascertains that mental disorders significantly decrease work productivity.
Unfavorable Working Environment
Factors related to unfavorable working environments are usually administrative and require a management approach to instill change. For example, lack of positive leadership imperative for work achievement, affects labor productivity levels. Griffiths (2009) posits that, positive and visible leadership of senior officials, marked with clear role boundaries and responsibilities, attributes to team stability and motivation reflected in improved patient outcomes. Proper leadership influences, guides and motivates followers towards attaining common goal.
A poor working environment has been noted in areas where capacities of health workers are not supported. Technical challenges facing hospital food services evolve around observing and maintain proper food-handling codes. Lack of effective skills would result to use of outdated cooking methods hence compromising nutritive value of food. Another lack of capacity involves use of contaminated equipment among food handlers easily transmitting pathogens to patients’ food. Capacity issues facing supplies department would be sourcing food supplies from unsafe sources ultimately resulting to transmission of infection to patients. Most of these patients have low immunity and further infections worsen their health status (Re´glier-Poupet et al., 2004; Richards & Riseborough, 1993).
Understaffing in hospitals mostly resulting from high turn over, contributes to poor working environments. Job descriptions are meant to outline roles and responsibilities equal to qualification and commensurate to a workers remuneration package. Most understaffed food service systems often mean hospital poses risks to patients’ safety through work overload on few existing staff. In 2011, Standford Hospital unveiled one of the greatest scandal in the health sector when they were found with neglect and indignity caused by lack of enough staff. This caused hundreds (1,200) of patients die from 2005 to 2009. The cause of death was mainly substandard...
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