1000 words for each question Question 1 (a) Governing organisations involved in delivering public services is closely associated with public accountability. This accountability applies to matters of...

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1000 words for each question

Question 1

(a) Governing organisations involved in delivering public services is closely associated with public accountability. This accountability applies to matters of service delivery (e.g. quality and cost of services). However, it goes further than that: it includes the social, economic and political impacts of an organisation’s policies on the community and on the society-at-large. Required Using examples from your learning explain the reasoning behind the above statement, bringing out ways in which governance structures and processes incorporate public accountability mechanisms.

(b) Often, the way government bodies relate to one another as part of the system of government is that some make policies and others deliver services in accordance with those policies; in other words, policymaking and operations to deliver services are separated. Required In the context of relations between the policy maker and the service provider, discuss how control may be exercised through a mix of quantitative and qualitative information. Give examples.

Question 2


Using examples from your learning, explain the following notions and how they are related to each other:

· short-term cost cutting arises from increasing managerial autonomy and by establishing annual salary bonuses and similar incentives for managers to achieve desirable aggregated annual results

· the autonomy and incentives just referred to can endanger public services being sustained in the long term, particularly because managers might allow the capacity of an organisation for providing services to deteriorate.

(b) Lay governors and general managers of governmental organisations rely on administrative and other specialist professionals (e.g., accountants, human resource experts, teachers, doctors, social workers) in various ways, and on systems (e.g. accounting systems, human resource systems, student management systems, patient and client records systems) developed, operated and maintained by them. Required Discuss the implications of this reliance in terms of relationships founded on professional technology, information and expert knowledge being unbalanced. Give examples.

Question 3

(a) Using examples from your learning during course, explain how matters of

public engagement and responding to public opinion are implicated in the way a board,

commission or council governs a public body.

(b) Provider organisations are organisations which provide a public service to the public;

examples are schools, health boards, and charities or voluntary bodies.

Funding organisations are organisations which fund the provider organisations, although

some may also provide services to the public; examples are ministries (e.g., Department of

Social Welfare), territorial authorities (e.g., Canterbury Regional Council) and funding

agencies (e.g. the Tertiary Education Commission, New Zealand Lottery Grants Board).


In respect to the relationships between provider organisations and funding organisations,

discuss the notion that financial numbers are a matter of measurement and, over and above

that, matters of communication, steering, answerability and sanction or reward

Question 4

(a) The governing body of an organisation involved in public service delivery (e.g. a

university council, health board, territorial authority council) will often try to steer units

of the organisation operating at the level of a community, a neighbourhood or a facility

(e.g., a school’s classrooms, a hospital’s operating theatres, a leisure centre), that is at the

so, called street level.


explain how and why a combination of (1) standards, (2) funding provisions, (3) inspections of activities, and (4) measurements of outputs is often used as a steering mechanism, rather than only one of these four being used alone.

(b) Processes and results of public service providers, be they public or private, are made more

visible (or less visible) according to what is reported (or not reported). In turn, this affects

how these organisations perform, and can lead managers and governors of such

organisations to change their behaviour.


Discuss this argument, bringing in such concepts as transparency and secrecy, and

accountability and unchecked autonomy.

Question 5

(a) In performing work for public bodies, administrative professionals (e.g., managers,

information systems experts, financial managers, auditors, economists, lawyers)

sometimes find themselves in the following two activities:

• Dealing with people from diverse political backgrounds

• Making presentations to public audiences

In the two roles or circumstances, these administrative professionals are called on to

apply various so-called generic skills and/or attributes. For a list of examples of generic

skills and/or attributes, see Jones (2010, p. 11).


i. Using examples, describe a single generic skill or attribute which applies in both

activities listed in the two bullet points above. Your examples may be drawn from

any of the subjects and contexts you have studied at university or, indeed, have

experienced in employment or intern situations.

ii. Explain how the skill or attribute applies to each bullet point, and why it is

important to each bullet point. Bring out similarities and differences in the two


(b) Management of public services in many countries is carried out in the context of



Discuss how openness, communication and other means of transparency on the part of the

management team of a public services provider improve political accountability in this


Question 6

(a) Using examples from your learning, explain how practical

difficulties (e.g., timing, information availability, interest of members of the public,

knowledge of members of the public) arise for governors and managers involved in

promoting community engagement in development planning (e.g., for the long-term

future of an entire territory) and related decisions about public body investment and


(b) Discuss how managing of public bodies goes some way beyond performance

measurement and business calculations, with consequences which are social, political and

cultural, as well as economic. Give examples.

Question 7

(a) Funding, performance and accountability are concerns for both governors and managers

of organisations involved in delivering public services, particularly in dealing with

external parties, such as funding bodies, service recipients and the public.


Using examples from your learning explain how these

concerns are interrelated in how governors and managers perform their duties.

(b) The term diversity and inclusion are sometimes used to describe a public service

organisation’s approach to the people it employs or otherwise involves in carrying out its

activities, and to the people to whom it provides services or who otherwise benefit from

the activities.


Discuss the political and managerial pros and cons of a public service organisation being

proactive culturally in applying this approach. Give examples.

Question 8

(a) Governments raise taxes and incur expenditure; this is true for local government (e.g.,

Christchurch City Council) as well as for governments at a national level (e.g., the

Government of New Zealand). Principles of representative democracy are a major

constitutional foundation affecting the way both local and national-level governments

account for taxation and expenditure.


Using examples explain how these principles, and the budgeting entailed in them, are encompassed in the governing of public bodies, including in the way financial responsibility is delegated within such bodies.

(b) Compare and contrast the respective places of the following in how the public are assured

about the reliability of public services and the organisations which provide them:

i. public meetings an organisation convenes

ii. external expert evaluation, inspection, audit and accreditation of the organisation

iii. information the organisation publishes, including on its web pages, social media

sites, and in plans and reports.

Question 9

(a) In a parliamentary constitutional monarchy and similar democracies, it is widely accepted

that public service organisations are accountable to the public.


Using examples from your learning course, explain the role of

radio, television, print, internet sites and social media in the complex nature of this

accountability relationship, and the implications for people in governing and managerial


(b) Regarding a public service organisation, accountability between staff with managerial

responsibility and the organisation’s governing body can take various forms.


Discuss the notion that budgeting, including budget setting and budgetary control, is the

primary form which this accountability takes. Give examples.

Part of your discussion should contrast budgeting with other forms of this accountability

between managers and governing bodies.

Question 10

(a) Matters figuring in the managing of bodies involved in delivering public services include

efficiency and effectiveness, avoiding wastefulness, and financial caution and foresight.


Using examples from your learning during the course, clarify the significance

of the matters referred to above, including their practical relevance to how things are done

in managing and performing service delivery.

(b) Those with an interest in the activities, performance and consequences of a public service

body (e.g., a hospital, a school, a city council) are likely to have varying expectations

about how the body in question should perform financially.


Discuss how these varying expectations add to the complexity of governing such a body.

In your discussion, you may wish to refer to such types of people as:

• electors (or voters)

• payers of direct and indirect taxes

• professionals involved in service delivery (e.g. civil defence personnel, medical

staff, university lecturers, police officers, engineers)

• recipients or beneficiaries of services, and

• owners, members and employees of private organisations with particular concerns

about the functions and roles of the body.

Question 11

(a) In performing work for public bodies, administrative professionals (e.g., strategic

planners, marketers, accountants, human resource experts) sometimes find themselves in

the following two activities:

• Conferring among people with diverse professional or expertise backgrounds

• Coordinating the managerial tasks which service department heads perform in

planning and budgeting processes

In these two roles or circumstances, administrative professionals are called on to apply

various so-called generic skills and/or attributes. For a list of examples of generic skills

and/or attributes, see Jones (2010, p. 11).


iii. Using examples, describe a single generic skill or attribute which applies in both

activities listed in the two bullet points above. Your examples may be drawn from

any of the subjects and contexts you have studied at university or, indeed, have

experienced in employment or intern situations.

iv. Explain how the skill or attribute applies to each bullet point, and why it is

important to each bullet point. Bring out similarities and differences in the two


(b) When used in governmental contexts, control systems are a source of political influence,

as well as administrative influence.


Discuss the accuracy of the above statement, and outline the practical implications for

chief executives of public bodies.

Question 12

(a) Using examples, explain how the roles of governors can be differentiated from the roles of managers in matters of the policies, procedures and activities associated with administration and control.

(b) Many organisations involved in delivering public services are characterised by beliefs,

values and missions, which are usually published. Often in these, considerations of a

political, social and macroeconomic nature seem ascendant. Moreover, when these

organisations make plans and analyse future capital projects, such considerations may

take precedence over considerations of efficiency and related microeconomic notions.


Discuss how and why political, social and macroeconomic considerations can be justified

as being ascendant in relation to public services, and the implications for projects which

public service organisations undertake. Give examples.

Question 13

(a), explain such reasons as market failure, allocative efficiency, distributive justice, social insurance and strategic significance for various services and goods being provided primarily by public bodies,

rather than private ones.

(b) Professional organisation is a name applied to a type of organisation dominated by

particular professionals (e.g. educators, researchers, clinicians, engineers, accountants,

lawyers, soldiers, social workers, police officers). Professional organisations include

public bodies involved in delivering certain public services (e.g. universities, hospitals,

transportation infrastructure, defence, social services, policing).


Contrast the following two notions, bringing in such concepts as trust, expertise, apathy,

accountability and corruption:

• That performance measurement and reporting can reduce the proficiency with which

particular public services are delivered by interfering with the work of the

professionals involved in their delivery, and

• That performance measurement and reporting can contend with the dangers of

particular public services being captured by the professionals who deliver them. That

is, it can prevent or deter the professionals in question from running the services

primarily for their benefit, instead of for the benefit of types of people who are

officially intended to benefit, according, for example, to legislation, charters,

regulations, statements of intent, missions and prospectuses.

Answered 2 days AfterJun 13, 2022

Answer To: 1000 words for each question Question 1 (a) Governing organisations involved in delivering public...

Tanmoy answered on Jun 16 2022
16 Votes
Organizations        4
Table of Contents
Answer 1.    3
Answer 2.    5
Answer 3.    7
Answer 4.    9
Answer 5.    12
Answer 6.    14
Answer 7.    17
Answer 8.    19
Answer 9.    22
Answer 10.    24
Answer 11.    27
Answer 12.    29
Answer 13.    31
References    35
Answer 1.
(a) Understanding the origination of accountability can help the people of a nation to hold the government accountable. Accountability is to be answerable. But since the public enterprises operates in coalition and intergovernmental networks, it is interpreting which establishes accountability in public management. This is considered as a difficult task. There are five forms of public accountability. These are political accountability where the public officials are accountable to the executive
anch. These accountabilities will be in the form of policymaking, education and defense to protect the environment. They also pose authorities with respect to making rules provided by the legislators. The second is bureaucratic accountability where the administrators of public agencies necessitate a principal agent relationship, adheres to the command and follow a performance management system which is standardized in nature. Thirdly, it is citizen accountability where the people of a nation can hold an appointed official accountable legally. Legal accountability is an association between the lawmakers and the representatives of government organization. Finally, it’s the professional accountability which instill discipline in the government agencies. Here the officials have to adhere the performance standards and the code of ethics established by the government (Wang, 2015). The concept of public accountability means there can be diverse forms of accountability between the individuals or the groups. Further, public accountability may have varied goals and perspectives. The example is that of a healthcare professional in a public healthcare center or government hospital is to ensure that they are available for treatment of the patients on time and ensure that they receive a prudent medical treatment. Also, the government or public accountability also aims at providing the best medical treatment to t
he indigenous community such as the Maori community and ensure that their culture and customs are maintained throughout generations. Further, the New Zealand State Service Commission as per the code of conduct acknowledges the state servants and declares them as the guardian of the citizens. On the contrary, the public expects that the state servants or public officials will serve them and safeguard their interests (State Services Commission, 2010).
(b) The policy maker is an official who are directly accountable to the citizens of the nation. On the other hand, the service provider can be an individual or an organization which provides services to the customers. The policy makers are actually the legislature and may be considered as the central ministry. The service providers in a public agency may be an organization in the line ministry. There are various problems associated with the public sectors globally and mostly in the poor, third-world countries. Even if the policy makers are being incentivized to adhere to their responsibilities and do the things in a co
ect manner and design a policy for the benefit of the citizens, it’s the shortage of staffs or personnel who are called the service providers which makes the implementation of the policy difficult for the people living in the poor and remote areas. These personnel are the healthcare professionals, doctors and nurses in different nations. The example of such discrepancies has been observed among the service providers in Bali with vacancy rate of doctors is nearly zero. But its West Papua where the vacancy rate of doctors is as high as 60%. It is very difficult to staff the people and such places differentiates based on employment opportunities. Further, such occu
ences are high among the personnel with higher education as they find better employment alternatives. Therefore, educated people are mostly born in the u
an areas. In Nigeria around 43% of the parents of the nurses and the midwives are the civil servants while around 70% of the people were born and
ed in the city. In cases where the policymakers are considered as the service providers, the management is under tremendous pressure to divert their attention towards the benefit of the citizens. They will try to find the problem and fix it at the earliest. In case policy maker is separate from the service provider, it becomes easier for the service provider to say no or I don’t care in delivering proper services to the citizens of a nation. In such cases it’s the bureaucracies which comes into play and becomes na
ow and tries to hide itself from the mistakes (World Bank, 2021).
Answer 2.
· Short-term cost cutting arises from increasing managerial autonomy and by establishing annual salary bonuses and similar incentives for managers to achieve desirable aggregated annual results: Since the businesses have become a competitive market, there are several strategies initiated by the organizations to limit itself within the budget. It is due to the increasing costs along with heightened competitiveness due to which the organizations are cutting costs which are short-term in nature. It is observed that approximately 25% of the expenses of the organization are a waste and must be minimized. But instead, if the company cuts inco
ect costs, then it can have an impact on the quality of the products and services. This can in turn lead to a decline in sales for the organization. Further, cutting of costs such as salary and bonuses of employees can be ugly and result in high attrition rate. Also, due to cost cutting, the suppliers may not be paid on time. Hence, for the company it may seem that they have saved huge amount of revenue in the short-run but in long-run the quality of services and product will drop severely. Hence, due to cost-cutting in an inappropriate manner can result in decline of company revenue. The company as a result can lose valued customers (MSG, 2015).
· The autonomy and incentives just refe
ed to can endanger public services being sustained in the long term, particularly because managers might allow the capacity of an organization for providing services to deteriorate: Providing autonomy to the public services managers can help the official to make better decisions for the benefit of the company. On the contrary, there is no evidence that increase in incentives for the managers in public services can enhance their productivity. The managers will always focus on the goals which have a direct impact on their career. They may try to avoid the risks which will shield them from any forms of blames and failures. The example is that of the Indian State-Owned Enterprises (SOE) which started with 5 SOE and due to an investment of $4 million grew to 260 SOEs in 2012 due to an investment of 206 billion. On the other hand, the incentives provide to the managers in SOEs are slightly lower than that provided to the managers of private companies. Hence, the risk-taking decisions of the SOE managers were poor as they knew that the government will bail out the company in case it fails to operate (Shleifer, 1998).
(b) At a senior level in a governmental organization the lay governors and the general managers relies on the administrative professionals due to the fact that they generate huge returns on the small investment for a skilled assistant. The salary of a lay governor or a general manager may be more than $1 million annually whereas the salary of the skilled administrative professional is $80000. Hence, the senior managers know that in order to
eak-even the administrative professional will help to generate atleast 8% more productivity than it would have been working among themselves or with senior personnel. The administrative professional or specialist will also try to save few hours for the senior manager where they can strategies actions for the betterment of the organization. Hence, good professional or specialist administrative personnel can help save the bosses and generate huge profits in return. These administrative professionals also ensure that the meeting is held on time along with the prep materials and agenda of the meeting are delivered to every single individual attending the meeting in advance. They are also responsible for scheduling and making remotest decisions in consultation with the lay governor and the general managers. They also try to keep the project on track and seldom misses the scheduled deadlines. The administrative professionals also help the manager from not being getting distracted from the numerous emails by answering the same. The managers instead can utilize the time proactively setting various agendas for the benefit of the organization. But in many companies, there are instances where there is a cut down on the work of administrative professionals. In these companies the workers and employees may find the boss loading a paper in the photocopy machine. These types of organizations believe in the concept of togetherness and a spirit of unity is created among all the level of organization. But according to the principles of management it is necessary to delegate the work among all levels of employees which will lead to cost-efficiency. Thus, the administrative professionals are too much involved in administrative activities and the same is managed by too few professionals for accomplishing organizational goals (Duncan, 2011).
Answer 3.
(a) It’s the governance which provides various benefits to the people of the country for participating in an active manner for edifying the country. Such participation can be in the form of community settings, non-governmental organizations informal ways, through incorporated organization and body authorities such as parliaments, court of law and the community services. The country can be structured through various public policies which is not made by the members of the parliament but also by the decisions of thousands of public servants, interest groups, corporations and the movements by the community. Hence, all these groups have an interest in the public policy. Further, the theory of public administration states that they are focused and concerned at placing the people or citizens of the country at the first place for when making the policies. Further, it’s the duty of the public servants or the government officials who have the responsibility to not only respond but also communicate and collaborate with the people of the country which enhances the engagement of the government with the citizens of the country. The public servant will engage with the educated citizens of the country and inform them of their rights as citizen of the nations and as voters of the country. They will also provide readily available information to the citizens and take their opinions as leaders, activists and authorities of the country. Further, the public servants will not deny the marginalized people of the nation and will develop a policy which will be designed based on the responsibilities and capabilities of the New Zealand Public Services for commencement and facilitating the engagement process. The government needs direct participation of the citizen for ensuring a stability within the country’s system, provide wellbeing of the people and administer the health, safety and energy provision for all in the future. Through public engagement the government is also responsible for harnessing the ideas, the knowhow, skills and the talents of the private sectors, professions and various organizations and reduce any chance to waste the resources and restrict the opportunities (Holmes, 2012).
(b) Although the funding organization provides financial assistance to the different organizations, the notion of financial numbers is a matter of measurement is true to the extent that the loan or subsidy provided in the form of government grants is not expected to be repaid. Although, the organization has to use the funds for the purpose for which the fund was provided. Also, it will be used for serving the larger good of the country. If the financial assistance is a government grant, then it is a reward for the public organization provided by the state or federal authority for completion of a project. In certain cases, there are contracts made between the public agency and the federal government for sharing the revenue. Example is sharing of revenue in case the organization is able to discover something which helps in generating profits in the form of a patent. Hence, it’s the government fundings which help the public organizations to get financial assistance for funding the innovative ideas, helps the project get public services which in turn helps in stimulating the economy of a country. Further, in a government grant there are no hidden charges and comes in the form of a gift for the public organizations. It cannot be treated as a loan. Yet since these government grants are being funded by tax dollars, there is rigorous compliance and reporting measures implemented by the government for ensuring that the fund is spend well and used for the purpose for which it is endorsed. The government funding is usually received in stages and the reports of the same must be documented. If there is any failure to document the process, then there can be severe actions initiated by the federal or state government who have provided the financial assistance. Further, receiving grants from the government is a very prestigious event and have a positive impact on the organization, the community in which the public organization operates and for the industry as a whole (Segal, 2021). When we say that the government is accountable or answerable, then it’s the public officials and the manner in which they administered the funds which is important. Hence, there is no answer on how the government can be held accountable for unable to recover the funds allocated to the public organization yet there are numerous institutions to prevent and detect these organizations from doing wrong with the public funds (Asquer, 2022).
Answer 4.
(a) The government which functions effectively are bound to provide an affordable, quality and adequate basic facilities in the form of delivery of services in the form of sanitation, waste management, housing facilities and pure water. Also, it is necessary for a prudent government to provide good healthcare facilities which are adequate for the citizens of a country. But in the developing countries such as India, Brazil, China the deliveries of these services are faced with various challenges in the form of coordination, financial assistance and the capacity which slow down the pace and the scale of infrastructural development. It’s the federal government which makes the policies and transfers the same in the form of resources to the state governments for execution of the policies. Also, the responsibility of providing basic services rests with the municipal government. The federal government covers the full ranges of a
angements where both the government and the stakeholders work collaboratively for implementation, providing and administration of the services. These stakeholders are generally the inspectors who uses their professional judgements in choosing the work which needs to be performed and various standards which are applicable for the work. They also define the scope of work, the process in which the inspection will be ca
ied out, the amount and types of evidence which needs to be gathered and selecting the tests for conducting the inspection in the public organization. Similarly, the funding provisions consists of conditional or unconditional grants for developing a public organization and financially assisting a project. The main aim of government funding is investment towards social service providers. Further, the government chooses the funding a
angement based on the measurement of output which are the term and purpose of financial assistance, the measurement of the accountability of the officials and the legally enforceable common responsibilities. Hence, none of the combinations can be used alone. These facilities collectively will help the people of the country to obtain an efficient route of getting access to the basic services. Hence, it is due to these reasons the parallel system glorifies and informality is the new trend in the development of the nations (GSDRC, 2022).
(b) Transparency is a widely accepted tool in the public service delivery. It is by
inging transparency in the public services which can help to enhance the quality of services when the decisions are taken by the citizens of the country. There can be i
egularity in the information system due to absence of transparency and increase in decisions. The best example is that of the Vietnam Provincial Government which according to a public consensus between 2011 and 2018 displayed sings of transparency along with high quality of education, health, better infrastructure in the country. Hence, this helps us to understand that it is transparency which helps in improving the services and helps to
ing in transparency reforms (Bauhr and Carlitz, 2020). Further, it is transparency which helps to promote accountability and provides sufficient data and information to the people of the country of the government’s policies and plans. It’s the executive agencies which inputs the information with respect to the operations and decisions which are available to the public. The public service providers which is a part of the government must be participatory in nature. They must increase the efficiency of the government and make innovative decisions thereby increasing its quality. The knowledge will be dispersed in the community through public officials, the citizens should be allowed to participate in the policymaking process and provide the government with various benefits in the form of collective expertise and qualitative information. Finally, the public service providers must be collaborative and engage the citizen of the country in all works of the government. The public officials must use innovative tools, processes and various systems and cooperate themselves with the non-governmental firms, businesses, private sectors and all levels of the federal and state government. The public officials must take feedback from the public in general, try to evaluate the same and identify various opportunities which can help in increasing the development through cooperation. Finally, unchecked autonomy can lead to ambiguity and challenges within the organization. This can be resolve by balancing the autonomy and
inging in accountability for all the public officials,
inging in innovation in all parts of the organization, implementing coordination and connectivity within the team by relying on the controlling managers and implementing an experiment-friendly culture which a focus on research and development processes along with restricted experiments (Mankins and Garton, 2017).
Answer 5.
· Dealing with people from diverse political backgrounds: The generic skills of people which can be observed among people dealing with diverse political backgrounds are thinking prior to speaking, administration, influential skills which is of interpersonal nature, sincerity, astuteness and networking capability (Fe
is, Davidson & Pe
ewe, 2005). The politically skilled person is one who thinks before speaking. Hence, this displays that he is able to control his impulses. They engage in organizational and political conflicts for presenting their ideas which is significant to assessing the team. Further, this skill helps to voice his opinion and presenting the ideas (Fe
is et al., 2005). Secondly, it’s the administration skills which helps the political person to communicate with the superiors. This skill helps them to maintain an effective relationship with the individuals at all stages of the organization. The interpersonal or influential skills helps in edifying a strong relationship and a rapport with all the members of the organization. This skill helps the person to play political games in a fair manner and without any efforts. The politically skilled person can be a perceptive observer in social conditions if he displays intelligence skills. This can be done through social interactions by evaluating themselves through interpersonal skills. Networking ability helps the politically skilled person to build friendliness and rapport along with well-integrated relationships with the co-workers based on their support, compromise and management of conflicts. Finally, its sincerity which displays the integrity and authenticity along with the honesty, trust and confidence of the politically skilled person.
· Making presentations to public audiences: These are political skills which helps the individual to understand others during work and usage of their knowledge for influencing others so that it helps to achieve the organizational objectives (Fe
is, Treadway et al., 2005). Political skills are a set of behaviors which fluctuates in different situations. Further, the organizations can also provide training on developing political skills to the employees and managers through interpersonal stimulus. Further, political skills are directed associated with extroversion and leads to proactivity. This skill also helps to increase the job performance with respect to quality, accuracy and is useful for social influence. But the disadvantage of political skill is that when the individuals have a strong desire for gaining personal...

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