BIOL121: Written assessment Scenario: David David is a 41-year-old male, who has made an appointment to see his GP for his biannual health check. He tells the doctor that he has been feeling “a bit...

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BIOL121: Written assessment
Scenario: David
David is a 41-year-old male, who has made an appointment to see his GP for his biannual health check. He
tells the doctor that he has been feeling “a bit puffed” walking around the course during his weekly game of
golf and that he seems to be urinating more frequently of late. David reports he has gained nine kilos since
his 30th birthday, and his waist measurement has expanded. He laughs this off as “middle-aged spread” and
says his wife tells him he needs to watch what he eats and drink less alcohol. David works as a software
engineer, which he has been finding very stressful of late, and spends a lot of his time in the office sitting in
front of a computer, snacking on his favourite salt and vinegar chips. David and his wife are keen to start a
family but have not yet been successful in conceiving.
On the advice of his doctor, David has been taking aspirin in the evenings for the past 18 months to lower his
risk of heart attack and Zocor® to address cholesterol.

Physical examination:

Height 174 cm

Weight 94 kg

Appearance : Neat appearance, overweight, pale

Temperature 37.1◦

Blood work

Blood type = O+

Blood glucose = 10 mmol/L

Blood Testosterone levels = 154 ng/dL

GnRH = low

155/99 mm Hg

Respiratory rate 19 bpm

Diet Mostly healthy meals. Snacks on high
fat & sugar, processed foods. Heavy
alcohol consumption.
Past patient history Ex-smoker. Regular check-ups every six
months. Cholesterol levels have been
high at the last three check-ups. Takes
Aspirin in the evenings. Gall bladder
removed 5 years ago.
Social status Lives with his wife and mother-in-law.
Sexually active.


Blood -

Bilirubin -

Urobilinogen 0.1 mg/dL

Ketone -

Protein -

Nitrite -

Glucose ++

pH 6

Specific Gravity 1.035

Leukocytes -

All topics and their key points listed below must be discussed in your essay

Topic 1: Reproduction (10 marks total)
David and his wife are keen to start a family but have had no success so far. Considering David’s blood test
results, indicate whether there is need for further investigation. Your discussion should include the
homeostatic regulation of male reproductive physiology and the relevant glands, cells, and hormones.

Topic 2:

Respiratory system

David is late for work and the lift is broken; he must run up six flights of stairs to make it on time.
Describe the gas exchange occurring between David’s blood and the skeletal muscles in his legs. Discuss how
the rate of gas exchange was affected during the run up the stairs (i.e., during exercise).

Topic 3:


After speaking to his doctor, David has decided to try to lose weight and he going to start a diet…tomorrow.
Tonight, David is enjoying his last high carbohydrate/high fat meal for a while.
Discuss the potential impact of David’s gall bladder removal upon his ability to digest his dinner.

State the hormone that is MOST active in maintaining David’s blood glucose levels at this time. Explain your

Topic 4:


Under the advice of his doctor, David has taken Zocor® tablets each evening for the past 18 months.
Discuss the route of administration, which route the drug is likely to be excreted after administration, and its
likely bioavailability. Justify your response by discussing whether the drug would be subjected to hepatic first

To help with weight loss, a friend has advised David to drink grapefruit juice with his meals.

As a health care professional, would you consider this to be a good idea for David? In your answer, discuss
the role of the liver in the administration of Zocor and grapefruit juice?
Answered 4 days AfterSep 29, 2022

Answer To: BIOL121: Written assessment Scenario: David David is a 41-year-old male, who has made an appointment...

Dr. Sulabh answered on Oct 03 2022
22 Votes
Case Study 1
The patient David is suffering from lipid metabolism disorder due to the accumulation of lipids in various organs of the body like the heart. He is overweight and he is not able to conceive thus he is also suffering from fertility problem
s. This patient is an excessive drinker of alcohol and is used to cigarette smoking. He frequently eats food that is rich in cholesterol and fat leading to the accumulation of fat inside the body and distu
ances in the metabolism of fat. His gall bladder was removed 5 years back due to metabolic problems (nd, 2018). The testosterone levels in the patient are decreased as the normal level of testosterone in the male is 300ng/dl in comparison to the testosterone level reported in this patient which is 150ng/dl. The urobilinogen level in this patient is also less with a value of 0.1ng/dl as the normal levels vary in the range from 0.1ng/dl to 0.8ng/dl (nd, 2018). The hormonal regulation of the secretion of the testosterone hormone from the Leydig cells in the testis follows a feedback loop with the activation of the signal inside the hypothalamus region in the
ain. The hypothalamus releases the gonadotropin-releasing hormone which activates the anterior pituitary region in the
ain. The anterior pituitary releases the luteinizing hormone which further activates the Leydig cells in the testis. 
Further testosterone causes the activation of the sex drive with the generation of the male sexual characteristic traits stimulating the process of growth and development (nd, 2018). There is a negative feedback loop if the secretion of testosterone increases inside the testis leading to the negative regulation by the secretion of the follicle-stimulating hormone from the Sertoli cells. Hence a problem in the feedback loop is causing a decrease in the level of the secretion of the testosterone hormone in the testis. The development of the spermatozoa in the sperm takes place with the nourishment provided by the follicle-stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland (nd, 2018). This patient takes medicines prescribed by a doctor to lower the levels of cholesterol and fat deposited inside the body. Testosterone is responsible for imparting sexual characteristics like the formation of a beard and mustache in males (Molnar & Gair, 2019). 
1. Molnar, C., & Gair, J. (2019). 24.4. Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction – Concepts of Biology-1st Canadian Edition. https:
2. nd. (2018, July 24). 26.4E: Hormonal Regulation of the Male Reproductive System. Medicine...

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