Microsoft Word - Project 1 Corporate Headquarters Process Engineering Group One Algae Way Somewhereville, NJ XXXXXXXXXX MEMORANDUM To: From: Dr. Donald Sebastian, VP R&D Date: March 24, 2022 RE: Scale...

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Microsoft Word - Project 1

Corporate Headquarters
Process Engineering Group
One Algae Way
Somewhereville, NJ XXXXXXXXXX

MEMORANDUM

To:
From: Dr. Donald Sebastian, VP R&D
Date: March 24, 2022
RE: Scale to Market Project
Welcome to the process engineering team. I hope you are ready to hit the ground running. The R&D team
has completed the lab work for our new zero-ca
on footprint, regenerative power plant that uses waste heat
from condensed tu
ine steam and CO2 recovered from the combustion stack gases to feed a biomass
eactor. The reactor grows algae that is later converted to biodiesel to fuel the power plant generation units.
Now it is time to scale from batch glassware to continuous pilot plant operations. The heart of the system is
a tubular photo-bioreactor (PBR). Solar energy drives growth of an algae inoculant that metabolizes the
sequestrated CO2 during photosynthesis to grow a critical biomass for biodiesel production. The R&D
scientists have determined that the algae must be maintained between 25C and 12C to ensure adequate
growth rates, and the plant must operate under average worst-case winter conditions listed in the
accompanying documentation. The flow in the PBR cannot be laminar or the tube walls will foul and block
sunlight to the core, while radial temperature gradients in the PBR could reduce efficiency. All relevant
supporting documents are on the corporate CANVAS server.
The suggested outline for your work follows:
1. Use your knowledge of heat transfer fundamentals to develop a design equation for the axial profile
of cup average temperature in the PBR tube as a function of a single dimensionless group, St(L/l).
2. Select a PBR diameter from one of the standard sizes.
3. Use the required residence time to find the length of the PBR.
4. Use your knowledge of fluid dynamics to establish the flow regime internal to the PBR– laminar,
transitional, tu
ulent. If ReD is laminar, reject and go back to step 2 and repeat with a new
diameter.
5. Use your knowledge of heat transfer fundamentals to select an appropriate Nu co
elation to
determine the tube side heat transfer coefficient.
6. Use your knowledge of fluid dynamics to establish the flow regime external to the PBR– laminar,
transitional, tu
ulent.
7. Use your knowledge of heat transfer fundamentals to select an appropriate Nu co
elation to
determine the shell side (external) heat transfer coefficient.
8. Use your relationship from (1) to compute the exit, cup average temperature.
9. If the cup average is less than 12C, reject and go back to step 2.
10. Compute the cost of the PBR using cost data in the tables. If this is not the lowest cost design,
eject and go back to step 2.
11. Use your knowledge of scaling and similarity to size a PBR for the scale up to the production facility
operating at 10 time the throughput of the pilot plant.
Prepare a report that details all assumptions and calculations supporting your recommendation. We need
this done before the investor meeting on April 15, so please complete all tasks and submit your report to me
y April 13.
Corporate R&D
Process Research Laboratories
One Algae Way
Somewhereville, NJ XXXXXXXXXX
Process Flow Sheet
Photo Bioreactor
PBR Feed Mix
Algae
Innoculant
Power Plant
Steam Condensate
Power Plant
Stack Gas
To Biodeisel Reacto
Corporate R&D
Materials Characterization Laboratories
One Progress Way
Somewhereville, NJ XXXXXXXXXX
Material Property and Operating Data
Algae Feedstream
Density,  {kg/m3} 1000
Viscosity,  {Pa s} 0.001
Heat Capacity, Cp {J/kgK} 4184
Thermal Conductivity, k {W/mK} 0.598
Feed rate, �̇� {kg/s} 0.275
Batch Reactor Holding Time, ? {s} 5400
Feed temperature, TF {C} 25
Pilot Plant Ambient Air
Density,  {kg/m3} 1.225
Viscosity,  {Pa s} XXXXXXXXXX
Heat Capacity, Cp {J/kgK} 700
Thermal Conductivity, k {W/mK} 0.025
Avg. Wind Velocity, v {m/s} 2
Avg. Winter Low temperature, TA {C} 0


PMMA Acrylic Tubing Spec Sheet
OD
{mm}
t
{mm}
L
{mm}
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
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XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
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XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
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Technical Data PMMA Tubing
Color Transparent
Density 1.2 {g/cm3}
Thermal Conductivity 0.214 {W/mK}
Heat Defelection Temp 70 {C}
Glass Trans Temp 100 {C}
Coeff. Expan. 7x10-5 {m/m/K}
Cost 1.20 {$/kg}
999B Hillock Ave.
Middlesex, NJ 08846
Phone: XXXXXXXXXX
www.polytrude.com
Heat Transfer Characteristics of PMMA Tubing
Axial Flow In smooth PMMA Tubing
Nu = 3.66 Re <2000
?? = 3.66 +
0.065
?
?
????
XXXXXXXXXX
?
?
????
? < 0.05 ? ?? ?? < 2000
Nu = XXXXXXXXXXln(Re XXXXXXXXXXRePr1/ XXXXXXXXXX < Re < 10,000
Nu = 0.023 Re4/5Pr1/3 Re > 10, XXXXXXXXXX < Pr <160
Longitudinal Flow Over PMMA Tubing
?? = 0.664?? . ?? / ?? < 5?10 ?? > 0.5
?? = 0.037?? . ?? / 5?10 < ?? < XXXXXXXXXX < ?? < 60
Cross Flow Over PMMA Tubing
Nu =0.911 Re0.385 Pr1/3 4< Re <40
Nu =0.683 Re0.466 Pr1/3 40< Re <4000
?? = 0.30 +
0.62?? / ??
[1 + 0.4/?? / ]
1 + (
??
282000
)
4000 < ?? < 40000
999B Hillock Ave.
Middlesex, NJ 08846
Phone: XXXXXXXXXX
www.polytrude.com
Answered 1 days AfterApr 11, 2022

Solution

Dr Shweta answered on Apr 12 2022
9 Votes
Question:
Welcome to the process engineering team. I hope you are ready to hit the ground running. The R&D team has completed the lab work for our new zero-ca
on footprint, regenerative power plant that uses waste heat from condensed tu
ine steam and CO2 recovered from the combustion stack gases to feed a biomass reactor. The reactor grows algae that is later converted to biodiesel to fuel the power plant generation units. Now it is time to scale from batch glassware to continuous pilot plant operations. The heart of the system is a tubular photo-bioreactor (PBR). Solar energy drives growth of an algae inoculant that metabolizes the sequestrated CO2 during photosynthesis to grow a critical biomass for biodiesel production. The R&D scientists have determined that the algae must be maintained between 25C and 12C to ensure adequate growth rates, and the plant must operate under average worst-case winter conditions listed in the accompanying documentation. The flow in the PBR cannot be laminar or the tube walls will foul and block sunlight to the core, while radial temperature gradients in the PBR could reduce efficiency. All relevant supporting documents are on the corporate CANVAS server.
The suggested outline for your work follows:
1. Use your knowledge of heat transfer fundamentals to develop a design equation for the axial profile of cup average temperature in the PBR tube as a...
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