CPW4 BUSINESS WRITING CPW4 BUSINESS WRITING Four Weeks + BUSINESS WRITING An essential skill in any professional role is to be able to write emails and reports Universities do not teach correct...

CPW4 BUSINESS WRITING
CPW4 BUSINESS WRITING
Four Weeks
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BUSINESS WRITING
An essential skill in any professional role is to be able to write emails and reports
Universities do not teach correct grammar
University reports are ‘academic’ in this course you will learn to write for business
Business writing requires good grammar, punctuation, proper use of paragraphs, a logical flow and specific outcomes. Business writing requires planning and review.
This unit is perhaps the most challenging unit in the PY Program.
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XXXXXXXXXXElements in a plain English writing style
Key elementPurposeStrategies
ClarityClarity in expression aids the reader’s understanding and adds conviction to your writing.Present new ideas clearly.
Arrange ideas in a logical sequence.
Avoid jargon and technical terms unless you are certain that the reader will understand the terms.
Remove ambiguous and unnecessary words.
ReadabilityReadability makes your information accessible to an average reader.Keep sentences to 15–20 words in length.
Limit each sentence to one idea.
Use complex sentences of 25–35 words sparingly, as they require a high level of reading skill.
Vary the length of sentences to add rhythm and interest to your writing.
Avoid slang.
Positive languagePositive language creates a positive first impression.Use direct and courteous language.
Project your desire to communicate with the reader.
Use a courteous and tactful tone.
Choose positive words rather than negative ones.
Active voiceThe active voice shows who or what took the action.Present a positive and enthusiastic impression by using the active voice (see pp. 464–5 in Chapter 18).
Examples are: ‘Tony reports to . . .’, ‘I act as manager . . .’
Frequent use of passive voice produces a sluggish effect.
Active voice creates an energetic image.
The ‘you’ approachThe ‘you’ approach addresses the reader and their interests.Focus on the reader.
Speak directly to the reader and address their needs.
Open a letter with a sentence that reflects an awareness of the needs of the reader.
Show consideration for the reader and how the content affects them.
Remember to focus on the document’s purpose.
PunctuationPunctuation helps understanding.Use a capital letter to start.
End a sentence with a full stop or question mark to break an idea into parts and to separate ideas from one another.
Decide whether you need to use a comma by reading the sentence aloud.
Check that the sentences are not too long.
ParagraphsParagraphs organise information around one idea.The average paragraph length in a business letter should be about six lines.
Avoid breaking an idea that should be presented as a complete unit in one paragraph into two paragraphs just to achieve the average paragraph length.
Occasionally, let a sentence stand alone as a paragraph to add emphasis.
Judith Dwyer, Communication for Business and the Professions Strategies and Skills, 7th edition XXXXXXXXXXviewed Feb 2021
 
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Dwyer, J. (2019), Communication for Business and the Professions: Strategies and Skills, 7th Edition, Pearson Australia]. Available from: Bookshelf.
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FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER
Letterhead: identifies the writer, their address and phone number. Most companies have a printed letterhead that also includes the logo, email address, phone number and website
Date: placed between the letterhead and the inside address. Short forms of dates can be misleading in international business letters. For example, 7/8/20 will be read as 8 July in the United States, but as 7 August in Australia therefore always spell out the month in words. Example (Australia) 7 August 2021 – NOTE – no punctuation
Inside address: the reader’s address (Mr and Mrs Cook) and is placed between the date and the salutation
Attention line: some organisations require letters to be addressed to the CEO or similar. What would you use in this case?
Salutation: is the writer’s greeting to the reader. It is placed two lines below the inside address or the attention line. When the writer knows the receiver’s name, it is used in the salutation or greeting rather than ‘Dear Sir’ or ‘Dear Madam’ or Dear Sir/Madam or Dear Madam/Sir. If the writer knows the person well enough to use their first name, this makes the letter more personal. In this case, the writer should also sign the letter with his or her first name.
Subject line: short and specific (‘office space’) usually use the abbreviation ‘re:’ to signify ‘as regards’ or ‘regarding the subject’ or similar.
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FUNCTIONS OF THE PARTS OF A BUSINESS LETTER
Body of the letter: is the ‘you’ approach, because it speaks personally to the reader. As it has a direct impact on the reader, the ‘you’ approach is likely to be understood easily and to achieve the intended action.

PurposeStrategy
BeginningThe beginning has two purposes: to open courteously and, when appropriate, to link the letter to previous transactions.In the opening paragraph, aim to catch the reader’s attention, interest and desire to read further. State your intentions. Explain the situation. Present the alternatives and related information. Use original opening statements that are relevant to the rest of the letter, rather than clichéd openings that use a group of words routinely, such as: ‘We are pleased to inform you . . .’
Middle or bodyThe body of a letter contains content appropriate to the purpose of the letter. The message puts the reader in a position to take action on the basis of the document.The middle or body of the letter presents details and information. The writer’s aim is to create a clear, concise and complete message that is easy for the reader to understand. The style uses the ‘you’ approach.
EndingThe ending has two purposes: to indicate future action and to close courteously.The closing paragraph states the action to be taken by the reader. The final sentence concludes with the same courteous tone used throughout the letter. This tone maintains goodwill between the writer and the reader.
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Functions of the parts of a business letter
 Complimentary close: should match the form of address used in the salutation. For a business letter that opens with ‘Dear Sir’ or ‘Dear Madam’, close with ‘Yours faithfully’ followed by your signature, name, and job title or designation.
Note – no punctuation and no capital letter for faithfully or sincerely
Dear Sir
Yours faithfullyDear Mr Johnson
Yours sincerelyDear James
Yours sincerely
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TYPES OF BUSINESS LETTERS
Request/Acknowledgement Good news/Bad news
PersuasiveCollection
Discuss: Can you think of an example that you have received for each type of letter?
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LETTER
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REQUEST AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LETTERS
Task 1: Assume you are Josie Eskander.
Part a: Letter 1 - Your are writing in response to Techno Trading Pty Ltd advertisement, of a new laptop at 20% below normal price.
You want information on brand name, availability of service and repairs, delivery times and methods of payment.
Firstly write the letter using the seven basic parts of the letter.
In the opening paragraph present a clear and courteous request
Then
Part b: Letter 2 - Write a response from Techno Trading Pty. Ltd. Giving the details required by you and proposing the sale.
Hint: You need to write 2 letters
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Good news letters: place the good news in the opening paragraph. State the reasons or details in the middle and end with a statement of goodwill.
GOOD NEWS/BAD NEWS LETTERS
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Bad news letters: open with an acknowledgement of the request.
Explain the situation then give the refusal or negative view and finally close with a positive paragraph.
(See Morjo and Morjo sample letter in next slide)
GOOD NEWS/BAD NEWS LETTERS
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BAD NEWS LETTER
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GOOD NEWS/BAD NEWS LETTERS
Task 2: In pairs, nominate a good news and a bad news letter writer. Discuss the key differences.
Write a good news and a bad news letter from Techno Training Pty. Ltd. to Alex Antonov accepting/declining his proposal to invest in the business.
Letter 1 – a good news letter to Alex Antonov accepting his proposal to invest in the business
Letter 2 – a bad news letter to Alex Antonov declining his proposal to invest in the business
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PERSUASIVE LETTERS
Persuasive letters are written to change the reader’s attitude or to get them to act such as to buy a product, or consider your application for a job!!
Use the ‘you’ approach.
Open with a sentence that catch’s the readers attention
In the next paragraph develop an idea that interest’s the reader or shows how the idea serves the reader’s interest
In the middle paragraphs develop the readers desire to have the product or to respond to your letter
Close by stating the action to be taken by the reader
Types of appeal
Emotional appeal Objective appealAppeal to authority
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XXXXXXXXXXPERSUASIVE LETTER EXAMPLE
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Task 3: Write a letter from Techno Trading Pty. Ltd. to a new client ‘New Realities Pty. Ltd. urging them to buy Techno’s new virtual reality software. Make a strong argument for the product.
PERSUASIVE LETTERS
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XXXXXXXXXXCOLLECTION LETTERS
A number of letters may be written to collect money such as:
a reminder stage
an enquiry stage
and finally an urgency stage.
Collection letter – urgency stage
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COLLECTION LETTERS
Task 4: Write a letter from the William Light Professional Education to Capricorn University seeking payment of contract fees (now overdue). The letter is in association with the writing of the University’s new Degree in Cyber Safety written for them by the William Light Professional Education.
Note – think about who from William Light would be writing this letter AND who you would write to/address to at Capricorn University
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
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MEMOS
A memorandum or ‘memo’ is a standard format for internal written communications (internal within the company or government organisation)
It is used for internal communication however is less formal than a letter
Mostly sent by email.
Usually contains general information
Reaches a large number of people at the same time
Provides a written record to refer to later
Allows difficult or detailed information to be logically and accurately communicated
A useful way to summarise information for the benefit of staff in an organisation
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MEMOs
When writing a memo ensure that you:
Identify the subject.
Select and order the information.
Write simply.
Use a suitable tone.
Types of memo
Instructional
Request
Announcement
Cover note for lengthy message
Permission or authority to take action
Conformation
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This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
Task 5: Write a memo from the CEO setting up a meeting of the William Light staff to discuss the organisation’s new budget.
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XXXXXXXXXXEXAMPLE OF A MEMO
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SPELLING, GRAMMAR, PUNCTUATION, PHRASING AND LAYOUT
From the five tasks you have undertaken, to date let’s look at some of the common errors that have been made and corrections.
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Most students communicate via social media. Whilst social media are used in business the standard form of communication remains the business email or letter
Most business letters are now sent in emails often as attachments but also simply as an email letter. Letters and emails converge when emails are formal.
However emails have many purposes and whilst there are good practice principles the email format is more flexible and fluid than for formal letters.
Emails
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Five common types of email
Discussion (including characteristics of business emails in Australia)
instruction emails
request emails
announcement emails
transmittal emails
authorisation emails.
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Elements of an effective online writing style
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Key elementPurposeStrategies
ClarityTo aid the reader’s understanding and add conviction to the writingCreate single-subject messages whenever possible.
Open the email message with a sentence that:
– makes a connection to previous correspondence
– identifies the document’s purpose, or
– reflects an awareness of the needs of the reader.
Focus on the subject and the purpose.
Show the reader how the content affects them.
Present new ideas clearly.
Arrange ideas in a logical sequence.
ReadabilityTo make information accessibleUse 15–20 words per sentence.
Limit each sentence to one idea.
Show who or what took the action by using the active voice.
Avoid slang.
Remove ambiguous and unnecessary words.
Avoid jargon and technical terms unless the reader is a technical expert.
Positive languageTo create a positive first impressionUse direct and courteous language.
Choose positive words rather than negative ones.
PunctuationTo help understandingUse a capital letter to start a sentence and end with a full stop or question mark.
Use punctuation correctly to assist reader comprehension.
ParagraphsTo organise information around one ideaCreate short paragraphs that are easy to read, unless a longer paragraph is needed to contain an idea.
Let a sentence stand alone as a paragraph sometimes, to add emphasis.
ToneTo establish the communication climateAvoid inflaming emotional responses.
Use a courteous and tactful tone.
Use an appropriate level of formality.
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Writing Business Emails In Australia
‘How to write a formal business email in English.mp4’ (mybusinessenglish.org sept 2012)
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TIPS AND TRICKS IN WRITING BUSINESS EMAILS
Ensure that an email is the best option- talking face to face is usually more effective for important matters
Make sure the tone is courteous and confident
Check spelling and grammar!
Be concise and use a conversational professional tone
Use capitals sparingly to emphasise or highlight
Try to minimise the number of attachments and avoid sending big files
Check your work before you send it
Or get someone else to edit it before you send it
Make sure you understand your company’s email policy
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC
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TIPS AND TRICKS IN WRITING BUSINESS EMAILS
What not to do!
Include personal matters or gossip
Use slang or text abbreviations
Use emotional words, insults or criticisms of individuals
Use technical words unless the reader is a techie
Include emoticons in formal emails
Expect an immediate response- some people only check their emails infrequently
Put sensitive material in an email
Cc people unless they really need to see the email
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Be clear- preferably only have one subject
Ensure you connect with previous correspondence (‘further to your email of X date)
Focus on the subject and the reader
Show the reader how the content affects them
Be positive and courteous
EFFECTIVE BUSINESS EMAILS
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EFFECTIVE BUSINESS EMAILS
Use short sentences (max 20 words)
One idea per sentence
Start sentences with a capital and end with a full stop
Have more full stops than commas
Use short paragraphs and even one sentence paragraphs to emphasise a point
Start with a greeting if the reader is known like, ‘I trust that you are well’ then refer to any previous correspondence
Sign off courteously ‘kind regards’ or regards or for formal ones ‘Yours sincerely’
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Task 6:
1. Write an email to someone you haven’t met asking for advice on the best app for soil moisture monitoring.
Use the correct greeting, sign off and the correct language
Then
2. Write the same request to the same person after you have met them and spent time working with them.
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GETTING THE TONE RIGHT. LEVELS OF FORMALITY AND APPROPRIATE LANGUAGE
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Task 7: Aptech Pty. Ltd. is an Australian IT company in the entertainment industry. Aptech is seeking new graduate staff in Web Design; App Design; Programming; Cyber Security and; Network Administration.
1. Write a job application letter nominating one of the above positions. The letter needs to summarise your skills and interests and convince the reader that your CV is worth reading and that you are a good candidate for the job.
Aptech’s address is 356 Technology St Adelaide and the person you need to address your application to is the HR Manager Ms Bessie Bradberry .
2. Write a response letter from Bessie to you which sets up an interview for the position. You need to specify the location, date and time and who will be interviewing you. Also that you need to bring your transcripts and work experience evidence.
Note: For letters one and two get one of your PYP colleagues to suggest some edits before you submit it to the facilitator.
3. Write a memo from Bessie to the Managers of each of the five project areas (first paragraph above) looking for staff to organise and set up interview times with the selected candidates.
4. As the Manager for New Apps Development send Bessie an email confirming that you will attend the interview at the specified time and provide the name of the staff member that set up the interview times and will also attend the interview.
You need to complete
A letter
A letter
A memo
An email

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GRAMMAR
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GRAMMAR
Grammar is the set of rules governing the use of words, phrases, clauses and sentences.
English grammar is different to the grammar of other languages.
Second language speakers of English find this challenging.
It is very important that your business writing uses correct grammar and punctuation.
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GRAMMAR: ARTICLES DETERMINERS AND QUANTIFIERS
Articles, determiners and qualifiers are those words that precede and qualify nouns. THE teacher; AN institute; A BIT OF butter; THAT person; THOSE people; EITHER way; YOUR choice
Whilst they are simple words, articles determiners and qualifiers are used differently (or not at all) in languages other than English and tend to be ongoing challenges for those who have English as a second language. The’ is used to give certainty. ‘The’ student. ‘The teacher’
Indefinite articles are used where you can’t be specific about the noun such as ‘a’ student. The use of ‘an’ is a bit tricky. ‘An’ is used instead of ‘a’ where the noun has a vowel sound like ‘an’ hour ‘an’ author. Also ‘an’ is used when the noun sounds like a vowel such as ‘an’ hour or ‘an’ honour (the ‘h’ isn’t sounded)
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DETERMINERS QUANTIFIERS AND COUNT NOUNS
DETERMINERS
Determiners are ‘mark’ nouns. For example: ‘my’ book; ‘the’ bus; ‘your’ mobile.
QUANTIFIERS
Quantifiers tell us ‘how much’ Knowing which quantifier to chose depends on your understanding of ‘count’ and ‘non-count’ nouns.
COUNT NOUNS
‘Count’ nouns are nouns that you can count!! For example the noun ‘trees’ can be counted as ‘a few’ ‘several’ or ‘many.’ But you can’t say ‘few’ ‘several’ or ‘many’ in quantifying ‘dancing’. ‘Dancing’ is a non-count noun so you would quantify dancing as ‘not much’ ‘a little’ or ‘a great deal of’.
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Definite Articles ‘the’ Indefinite Articles ‘a’ ‘an’
Task 8: Refer to appendix 1 in your assessment pack, it requires you to read the article in your assessment pact and fill in blanks with either - ‘the’, ‘a’ or ‘an’.
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QUANTIFIERS
Task 9: Activity Report - see appendix 2
Pick a quantifier from the list given below and complete each sentence in APPENDIX 2 attached at the end of the assessment.
Quantifier:
A FEW | A GREAT DEAL | A LITTLE | A LOT | A LOT OF | A MAJORITY OF | ENOUGH | MANY | MUCH OF | PLENTY | SEVERAL OF | SOME
 
Some similar quantifiers give very different meanings to their noun. Write a sentence using ‘a little’ meaning ‘some’ and another sentence where ‘little’ means ‘not much’ (in APPENDIX 2)
Do the same for ‘few’ and ‘a few’ (in APPENDIX 2)
 
Hint: in formal business writing its preferable to use ‘many’ or ‘much’ and avoid ‘lots’ ‘lots of’ or ‘plenty of’

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ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
They had given us visas for twelve monthsVisas……
 2. The data is being uploaded
3. By next month, we will have finished the
Unit on business writing
 4. Computers are shipped to many foreign countries
5. The programmer completed the app
 6. The laptop was delivered yesterday
7. The manager was making an announcement
 8. The network will be down overnight


TASK 10: Fill in the missing sentences
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VERB TENSE CONSISTENCY
Most reports are written using either the simple past or simple present tense. Where you are talking about the future its best to start a new sentence such as ‘In future…..or…. growth could be achieved……or It is recommended that in future….
Don’t shift from one tense to another if the time line for each action remains the same.
TASK 11: correct the following sentences for verb tense consistency ON YOUR HANDOUT:
The facilitator explains the table to students who asked questions during the lecture
Correction:
About noon the sky darkened, a breeze sprang up, and a low rumble announces the approaching storm.
Correction:
 Yesterday we walk to Uni but later rode the bus home.
Correction:
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PERSONAL PRONOUNS
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY
In general business reports are written in the third person. However shorter reports particularly where an opinion is given are written in the first person
PronounFunctionUseSubjective
CaseObjective
CasePossessive
Case
First PersonRepresenting a
Person speakingPersonal
Experience
Often in emailsI, weMe, usMy/mine
Our/ours
Second PersonRepresenting a
Person or thing
Spoken toRarely as key
Pronoun in business writingyouyouYour/yours
Third PersonStanding for a
Person or thing
Spoken ofMost commonly used in business writingHe/she/itHim/her/itHis/hers/its
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PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Task 12: Change the following sentences to the third person
I am going for a short bus ride.
We have decided not to attend the cricket match
Change the following sentences to the first person
It was a good match to watch.
Her speech was inspiring to us all.
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TENSES AND WRITING PARAGRAPHS
TIPS:
Use past tense to narrate events and to refer to an author
Use present tense to state facts and discuss ideas or those expressed by an author
Use future tense in writing recommendations for action
Try to limit each paragraph to one idea or key point.
Do not mix your tenses! 
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TENSES AND WRITING PARAGRAPHS
 TASK 13: Write a four paragraph report on your favourite subject or technology in IT. Choose either first person or third person narration.
An introductory paragraph introducing the subject.
 A past tense paragraph talking about the background to this subject or technology
A present tense subject identifying the facts and key uses or advantages
A final paragraph in future tense recommending what should happen next.
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GRAMMAR TIPS
Practice, practice, practice
Use www.grammerly.com as a tool to support you
Purdue OWL https://owl.purdue.edu/ or https://www.citethisforme.com/
are good reference checking and reference generators.
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PUNCTUATION
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PUNCTUATION
Punctuation in sentences gives flow and achieves the same impact as pauses and inflection achieve in spoken communication.
Use a capital letter to start a sentence and a full stop to finish it
A comma ‘,’ is used to mark a pause or give the remainder of the sentence equal weight
A colon ‘:’ is used to begin a list or introduce a quote or example
A semi-colon ‘;’ is used between closely related clauses
For a fuller list and detailed explanation please read:
Https://student.Unsw.Edu.Au/punctuation-guide
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BUSINESS REPORT WRITING
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BUSINESS REPORT WRITING
As with emails and letters the approach to business report writing is more direct and specific than academic writing tends to be
In your internship and first graduate jobs you will be required to write business reports.
Some reports will be yours alone and others you may write as part of a team.
It is useful to categorise reports as either ‘short’ or ‘long’
Most of the reports you will write will be the ‘short’ format but
you will also need to be prepared for a few ‘long’ ones as well
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BUSINESS REPORTS
Reports are written on a specific subject
Reports are intended to provide information (and sometimes opinion) so that management can check progress, plan for the future or make decisions
The key to an effective report is careful planning
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BUSINESS REPORT WRITING
Effective business reports:
Have a clear purpose
Have accurate and objective information
Suitable headings
An order of information that highlights the main points and leads logically to the conclusions
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BUSINESS REPORT WRITING
Reports must be well planned
For a short report you may use first or second person
For most business reports, particularly long reports and analytical reports are written in the third person
Uses graphics to reinforce written text
Has headings and sub-headings
Uses dot point lists for effect and readability
Has a clear conclusion
The writer focusses on the problem, method, findings and conclusions
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SHORT REPORTS
Six steps in writing a short business report:
Identify the purpose
Consider the readers
Identify information needs
Gather the information and avoid being side-tracked
Sort the information
Arrange the sections
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ORDERING THE REPORT’S CONTENT
Indirect order - problem solving approach, conclusions come last- use with unfamiliar audience
Direct order- conclusions up front - use with familiar audience
Routine order - well structured series of points ending in a summary to assist the reader to come to a conclusion.
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TYPES OF SHORT REPORTS
Different types suit different purposes and situations:
Justification reports
Progress reports
Periodic reports
Fillable reports
Analytical reports
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JUSTIFICATION REPORTS
Seek approval for change and the resources to initiate change
Give reasons and explain why it needs to happen
Includes advantages and disadvantages
Recommendations describe change and process to make it happen
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PROGRESS REPORTS
Inform management of the rate of progress
Written on request or need
Varies from formal to informal depending on circumstances
Emphasis placed on achievements and progress and evaluation of risks/problems
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND
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PERIODIC REPORTS
Most common form of report
Daily monthly quarterly
Many are completed on standard forms
Emphasis on most important points such as a change, success or issue.
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FILLABLE REPORTS
A standard format that is ‘filled in’
Good for keeping up to date and consistent records on standard matters
No need for narrative
For example a monthly statistics report
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XXXXXXXXXXSHORT REPORT WRITING TASK
Task 14: Activity Report
Assume you are to prepare a short justification report for William Light Professional Education Pty. Ltd. asking for new computer technology. You are given the following instructions on the order of information to use in the report
Use the first person
Create a title
Develop a series of headings
Open by stating the proposed changes and then go straight into the current problems of computing software being inadequate for the size of the company. (introduction)
Start the body of the report with some concrete examples of the advantages of the new software. Briefly explain the advantages. Present the problem of the existing system.
Place the conclusions and recommendations at the end of the report. 
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SHORT REPORTS EDITING AND REVIEW
Reviewing and editing is essential to ensure accuracy appropriateness and to minimise errors.
Task 15: Working with a colleague, edit each other’s short report created in task 14. Submit some discussed and identified key points in the report.
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PLAGIARISM AND REFERENCING
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PLAGIARISM
Task 16: Follow the link below to read and review: Purdue OWL ‘Avoiding plagiarism’
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/589/01/
1. Write a short report not more than 100 words on ‘avoiding plagiarism in business writing’
2. Write an example of a reference from (a) the internet and (b) a paper journal using Harvard referencing https://www.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/docs/harvard-style-guide.pdf
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LONG REPORTS
Long reports are more formal, detailed and often analytical.
In business long reports may be written by teams.
Given their length long reports will have an executive summary and table of contents
Most reports greater than four pages in length would be considered a long report or at least a short report that requires an executive summary.
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PARTS OF A LONG REPORT
PartPurpose
Title pageIdentifies the report’s title, the receiver’s name and title, the writer’s name and title, and the date.
Letter of transmittalIndicates in the form of a formal covering letter the person who authorised or requested the report, the terms of reference, the scope of the report and the problems addressed. It serves as a record of transmittal, identifies the writer and acknowledges others who contributed.
Terms of referenceStates clearly and concisely the scope of the report.
AcknowledgementsLists the names of persons and institutions who assisted in preparing the report.
Table of contentsRecords the name of each part of the report and the name of each first- and second-level heading within the body, and the page on which each occurs.
List of figures or tablesRecords the titles and page numbers of tables, illustrations and diagrams.
Executive summary, abstract or synopsisSummarises or provides a brief overview of the report’s purpose, findings, conclusion and recommendations. Gives the starting point and directions of the report.
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PARTS OF A LONG REPORT continued
PartPurpose
Centre section of the main bodyPresents factual, objective information. Findings are analysed and discussed, and evidence is presented. Headings and a numbering system are used to signal to the audience when new ideas are to be introduced and developed.
ConclusionSummarises the report’s findings and evaluates the main facts.
RecommendationsOffers solutions or courses of action.
Signature blockContains the signature, name and job title of the writer, usually placed after the recommendations and before the appendices and bibliography.
Appendices and attachmentsPresent additional material such as charts and tables that are relevant to the report.
References and bibliographyReferences include the information quoted in the text. The bibliography lists further recommended reading material on the subjects covered in the report or other relevant subjects. The two terms have in the past been used to distinguish between the different functions of a list of references and a bibliography. However, these days the list of references and further reading are often presented together and titled as either references or bibliography.
GlossaryDefines and explains technical words.
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PARTS OF A LONG REPORT II
Written in the third person or first person plural
Introduction or ‘background’ (includes scope or aims of the report)
Central sections (under relevant headings) provides facts/data with analysis. Each heading should have a key theme or subject.
Conclusion (summaries findings and main facts)
Recommendations (specific solutions or courses of action)
Signature block
Appendices and attachments
References and bibliography
Glossary
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This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
STYLE GUIDE
Most companies have a style guide
Components will include:
Use of the company logo
Security around documents and confidentiality
Fonts and letter sizing (this PowerPoint is century gothic (body) with size 16 body and 24 headers)
Pagination
Colour and background (this PowerPoint has white on black with red for tasks and blue for highlights)
Referencing
Documentation (such as pdf, png)
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EXEMPLAR LONG REPORT: SHIRAZ CREEK WINES P/L
Task 17: Role play
See detailed handout on the exemplar report and its background
Read and discuss the report in small groups
Discussion in full group:
Audience
Structure
Data and analysis
Logical flow
Conclusions and justifiable recommendations
Executive summary
Review and edit
Ask the facilitator to provide the handouts on the Exemplar Report if enable to find out in the assessment resources.
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XXXXXXXXXXLONG REPORT WRITING PROJECT
Task 18: You need to nominate a business from the list provided
Research the industry, the company, where it fits, its main competitor’s and potential for growth. On completion discuss your research with the facilitator who will approve your moving to the next stage.
Document and use the company’s style guide or other format approved by the facilitator
Develop a draft table of contents for approval by the facilitator
Write your report. The facilitator will provide assistance as you progress.
Complete the executive summary
Edit and review your completed report and document your changes
The facilitator to identify a list of Australian businesses headquartered in that campus’s city. The report is to be written for Axis Investments, a large international investment house interested in acquiring Australian companies with a growth trajectory. You are a Business Analyst or Advisor/Consultant who is writing this report to Axis Investments and advising whether they should invest (or not) in this business
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LONG REPORT WRITING PROJECT
1. Australia & New Zealand Banking Group Ltd (ANZ) Financials
2. National Australia Bank Limited (NAB) Financials
3. BHP Limited (BHP)
4. CSL Limited (CSL) Health Care
5. Telstra Corporation Limited (TLS)
Telecommunication Services
6. Rio Tinto Limited (Rio) Metals & Mining 
7. Transurban Group (TCL) industrials
8. Amcor Limited (AMC) Materials
9. Newcrest Mining Limited (NCM)
Metals & Mining
10. Vicinity Centres (VCX)
11. You can choice another company however it needs approval by your facilitator
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Any questions?
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May 11, 2021

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