Answer To: CODE OF PRACTICE - HONOURS ART6401 MASTER BY COURSEWORK RESEARCH PROJECT UNIT INFORMATION AND...
Abhishek answered on Oct 10 2021
Running Head: DISSERTATION 1
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE AND ADAPTIVE STRATEGY IN INDIA
This study analysis focused on the evaluation of the various links and probability between the frequent climatic change and farmers’ agriculture strategy in India. The influence in internal conditions related to the climatic stress and the farmers decision towards the changes. The study also shows the impact of climate in the agricultural market. Climate change affects and scrutinises the atmospheric composition, the climatic conditions and human healthcare. The demographic case studies are continuously taken into analysis due to the impact of climatic changes in the agricultural areas. The study enhances the broad concept of agricultural methods and strategies to prevent and procure due to the climate change in India.
The uncertainty of climate change with its effect into food security comes as a major threat in agriculture. The studies show that the future projection of climate change in agriculture analysis states that there will be an increment in temperature by the time span of 2050. The temperature increase will be almost 2.5 degree Celsius on an average. The prolonged rise in temperature can affect the crop productivity and can act as a source of reduction in the yielding of the agronomic crops. The development and adaptations of various strategies in the backdrop of climate change provides useful analysis for the researchers and farmers who are mitigating and mostly affected by the negative impact of climate change.
I would like to acknowledge every source and members associated with the research work. Firstly, I would take this opportunity to show my gratitude and respect towards my teachers and especially my faculty members who have been the best possible support for the research work. Guidance, suggestion and understanding have been the essence upon which the research work has improved and grown to have a complete sense. The research work has acted as the bridge between practical knowledge and theoretical knowledge. Secondly, I would like to thank my parents who are the reason for what I am today. Lastly, my fellow classmates who have been there for support at every moment.
Thanking you all,
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction 7
1.1 Background of the Research 7
1.2 Research Rationale 8
1.3 Research Aims and Objectives 9
1.4 Research Questions 11
1.5 Problem Statement 12
1.6 Significance of the Research 12
1.7 Structure of the Research 13
1.8 Summary 13
Chapter 2: Literature Review 14
2.1 Concept of Climate Change 14
2.2 Concept of Adaptation Strategy 14
2.3 Theories of Climate Change 15
2.3.1 Bio Thermostat Theory 15
2.3.2 Cloud Formation and Albedo Theory 16
2.3.3 Ocean Currents: Thermohaline Theory 17
2.3.4 Planetary Motion Theory 18
2.4 Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture 19
2.4.1 Positive Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture 19
2.4.2 Negative Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture 20
2.5 Adaptation Strategies for Climate Change on Agriculture 21
2.5.1 Agricultural Adaptation Strategies 21
2.5.2 Crop Diversification 22
2.5.3 Soil and Crop Management Strategies (SCMS) 22
2.6 Strategies for the Reduction of Climate Change in Agriculture 22
Chapter 3: Research Methodology 24
3.1 Research Philosophy 24
3.2 Research Approach 25
3.3 Research Design 26
3.4 Data Collection Strategy 27
3.5 Data Analysis Strategy 28
3.6 Inclusion Criteria 30
3.7 Exclusion Criteria 30
3.8 Accessibility Issues 30
Chapter 4: Data Findings and Analysis 32
Theme 1: Climate Vulnerability and Food Production 32
Theme 2: Change in Scenarios over Subcontinent 33
Theme 3: Crop Production Vulnerability 35
Theme 4: Impact Assessment on Crop Models 36
Theme 5: Mitigation and Adaptation 38
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendations 41
5.1 Conclusion 41
5.2 Recommendations 42
5.2.1 Implementation of Strategies 42
5.2.2 Adaptive Strategies 42
5.2.3 Improvements 43
5.2.4 Agricultural Operations and Improvement of productivity 44
5.3 Linking with Research Objective 44
5.4 Future Scope of the Research 44
Appendix: Time Table 53
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Research
Agriculture has a strong impact on the economic sector of different countries. The GDP of the country is vehemently dependent on the agricultural sector associated with the country. There are different factors that can be considered as the serious issue in the context of agriculture. Agriculture, by all means, is very much dependent on the climate and nature.
The soil, surrounding atmosphere and many other things plays a crucial role in the origination of the proper food and grains through the agricultural procedure. On the other hand, as argued by Zaveri et al. (2016), the climate also plays a significant role in the context of agriculture. The food grains and the agricultural crops change according to the climate and specific climate helps to grow specific food grains as well. That is the reason why it is very important to focus on the climate change in the sector of agriculture.
The Earth has recently developed many incurable diseases as the result of the pollution created by humankind. One of the major issues in this case is global warming. Because of global warming and the different, other changes in the atmosphere, the climate is changing unusually in the past years. In this report, the main issue is to discuss the effect of climate change on the surrounding atmosphere.
In the context of India, it should be remembered that the majority of the economic contribution is made by the agricultural field. If climate change affects agriculture negatively then it will be very much harmful for the economy and the GDP of the country itself. That is the reason why this report tries to evaluate the different climate change effects on agriculture and how the adaptive strategies should be developed based upon them in this case.
In the past observations, it can be concluded that the unusual climate change is affecting the agricultural growth of India. Many crops have been affected because of the climate change issue and that is the reason why it is very important to understand, in which way the climate change is affecting the agricultural growth within India.
If the adaptive strategies are not developed immediately then it can create problems in the economic sector of the country in a huge ratio (Dubey & Sharma, 2018). The identification of the different context associated with climate change needs proper adaptive strategy. This adaptive capability can reduce the harmful nature of climate change in the agriculture sector in India.
1.2 Research Rationale
Climate change is a global concern in the present situation. That is the reason why it is very important to think about climate change in general. Climate change has affected many sectors within the different countries. In the context of India, the main threat comes from the agricultural sector. The agricultural sector, as discussed above, has a great impact on the country’s economy (Pathak, Jain, Bhatia, Kumar & Chatterjee, 2016).
That is the reason why it is very important to discuss climate change and the probable solution associated with these problems. All of these reasons indicate the fact that climate change can be a very important issue regarding the decline of agricultural standards and economic fall of the country.
In the past years the statistics and the database has shown the facts that climate change is affecting the agricultural field in India in a huge manner. A strong decline of food production has been seen due to climate change. The sudden climate change is creating hazards in the crop production and the yielding procedure.
That is the reason why the agricultural standards are falling and along with that the different factors associated with the GDP has been also degraded due to the climate change problems within the agricultural sector. This is the reason why it is a very important issue to discuss at present in order to opt for a better future (Reddy & Sreenivas, 2016).
In this way, the different factors can contribute to the further benefit of the future agricultural field within the country. This will act for the better changes in GDP as well (Whitehead et al., 2018). This study will be beneficial in the future context as well. This study is full of information and the different statistics, which can help the other researchers to conduct a different study on the topic. They will inherit a lot of knowledge from this research as well. As the problem is a growing concern in the different parts of India, it is very important to conduct this research for the future benefit as well.
1.3 Research Aims and Objectives
The primary aim of the research is to identify the effects of climate change in the different sectors of the agricultural field within India. This research also aims at understanding the need for the adaptive strategy within the agricultural field to balance the climate change within the context of the country itself. Resolving this aims the country will be able to develop the proper strategies that can beat the effects of climate change in the agricultural context.
There are some objectives set by the researcher for the betterment of the studies. These objectives will help the researcher to deduct proper conclusions from them. The objectives are discussed below.
· To identify the impact of the climate change within the agricultural field in India
This objective enhances the identification process of the different effects and the problems related to the climate change in the context of the agricultural field. If the problems can be identified then the probable solutions associated with the problems can be identified as well. In this way, the different factors can initiate the process of the development of the adaptive changes within the agricultural context on India. Through a thorough deduction, this process can be done smoothly and easily, which is beneficial for the study.
· To evaluate the effectiveness of the climate change in the development of the adaptation strategy within the agricultural fields in India
This is the objective, which talks about how the climate change and the effect of climate change can make changes in the agricultural fields in India. If there are problems created by the unusual climate change then the people associated with, the agricultural field needs to change their strategy for the agriculture. Through this objective, the effectiveness of the climate change in this procedure can be evaluated with great depth and credibility.
· To analyse the positive impact of the climate change on the betterment of agriculture and adaptive strategy associated with the agricultural field in future
Analysing the impact of the climate change is a very important process within the research study. It has been discussed above that the climate change is reducing the total growth of the crops and food grains, which is destructive for the agriculture and the GDP growth of the country. On the contrary, the climate change can make the people think about better policy and strategies to cope up with the problems created by the climate change. Thus, the origination of the adaptive strategy can be carried out, which can be considered as the positive impact of the climate change.
· To recommend the best practices for the development of the adaptive strategies within the agricultural field in India
This objective enables the researcher to recommend the different suitable ways for developing the adaptive strategy in the context of the agriculture in India. There is a room for enough recommendations within the country, which can be very essential to consider within the adaptive strategy. The recommendation can be done going through the above-mentioned three processes. This can give depth and legitimacy to the recommended strategy overall, which is very much needed in this case. That is the reason why this objective will be effective in the grounds of developing proper recommendations on the behalf of the researcher in this case.
These objectives can lead the researcher to conduct an in depth research on the chosen topic, which is the effect of climate change on the agricultural fields in India and how it can be involved in the initiation process of the adaptive strategy in this field.
1.4 Research Questions
There is a set of questions, which needs to be addressed in order to make the research worthwhile for the future studies. The set of the research questions have been stated within the research below. These questions are aligned with the objectives previously set for the study. They are-
1. What is the impact of the climate change within the agricultural field in India?
Through this question, the researcher will look for the answers related to the identification process associated with the problems created by the unusual climate change in the context of the agriculture in India. This is a procedure, which talks about the various things, which should be focused on in order to cope up with the climate change issues.
2. What is the effectiveness of the climate change in the development of the adaptation strategy within the agricultural fields in India?
This question will answer on the behalf of finding the proper effectiveness of the climate change in the context of the agriculture and the development of the climate change. The climate change can enable people to talk about better strategies for the generalised growth of the agricultural field in the context of India.
3. What is the positive impact of climate change on the betterment of agriculture and adaptive strategy associated with the agricultural field in future?
Finding the answer of this question will enable the researcher to analyse the positive impact of the climate change in the lights of the development of the adaptive strategy. This better strategy will have a better and beneficial impact on the GDP rate of the organisation. In this way, the different factors can come to the considerations of the research for the better completion of the research in general.
4. What are best practices for the development of the adaptive strategies within the agricultural field in India?
This question will enable the researcher to find the proper recommendation associated with the better adaptive strategy in the context of the agricultural fields and the reduction of the problem associated with it. In this way, the best practices can be developed with the help of the above three procedures.
1.5 Problem Statement
The problem that is discussed within this research paper is the declination of agricultural procedure within India. The main reason behind this is the climate change. How the climate change is affecting the different agricultural procedure is identified within this context (Tripathi & Mishra, 2017). That is the reason why this research is being conducted to understand the possible problems created by the climate change.
1.6 Significance of the Research
An aggregate of 55% of the GDP of India comes from the agricultural field. The agriculture contributes to a very important economical pillar of the country. As of the result of unusual climate change, there are many problems associated with the agricultural field in general. The food production and the crop production has limited over the years is affecting the food demands and the international import and export scenario (Singh, Anand & Khan, 2018). That is the reason why conducting this research is very significant as it is a growing problems in the present situation.
Conducting this research is very relevant to the present situation of India as well. The agricultural declination can have an effect on the GDP as well. In order to increase the GDP and even to increase the food productivity, it is very important to develop the adaptive strategies (Birkenholtz, 2017). This study will help to identify all the prospects that can act as a scope to the development of effective strategy to increase the food production.
1.7 Structure of the Research
There is a structure, which is followed by the researcher throughout this study. The different research ideas follows through the different structures and in this way the research has the proper depth and legitimacy. The structure is given below.
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Chapter 3: Methodology
Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Findings
Chapter 5: Recommendations and Conclusions
Figure 1.1: Dissertation Structure
This chapter summarises the main topic that will be discussed in the course of this report. This chapter also gives a brief overview of the objectives, aims ad questions that are associated with the research itself. This chapter itself can give proper clarity and eligibility to the research to be worthwhile for the further chapters that will be carried out by the researcher for the sake of the completion of the study.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Concept of Climate Change
Climate Change has been referring to global warming as well as the large-scale shifts, which have occurred in the weather patterns (Guntukula, 2020). Climate change has been caused by the rising temperatures from various zones. However, the human cause of climate change has not been disputed by any kind of the scientific body of the national or the international standing. The biggest influence of this climate change has been caused by the emission of the greenhouse gas. 90% of the impact has been coming from the substances of the carbon dioxide and methane, which has been causing an impact on agriculture (Karimi, Karami & Keshavarz, 2018).
However, the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has been assessing the scientific technical and the social economic information, which has been relevant for the understanding of the risks of the human induced changes of the climate. The Climate Change includes the land surfaces heating faster than the ocean surfaces. It has been leading to the heat waves as well as spreading of the wildfires and the expansion of the desserts. There have been several solutions and researches, which have been leading to a reduction of the dreadful climatic changes eruptions in the world.
2.2 Concept of Adaptation Strategy
It has been researched that the adaptation strategy has the motto of increasing the society’s resilience for the changes in the climate. It is the framework for managing the future of the risks in the climate and prioritising the coordination action of the climate (Jha, Gupta, Chattopadhyay & Sreeraman, 2018). The Adaptation strategy has been offered as the potential for reducing the future economic, environmental and social costs. Adaptation strategy seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. Here, human intervention may facilitate the adjustment, which has been expected from the climate and its eventual effects, which has been related to the environment.
The overall adaptation has been encompassing a broad set of approaches, which has been adapting to the changes in climate. It has been involving the management of the ecosystems and their services has been reducing the vulnerability of the human communities, which has been affecting the changes in the climate (Gupta, Pingali & Pinstrup-Andersen, 2017). The Adaptation strategy has been needed to maintain the ecosystem such as the forests, grasslands, wetlands and the coral reefs that can reduce the harmful effects of climatic hazards (Raza et al., 2019). Therefore, adaptation strategy has been crucial in order of the maintaining of the real and the climatic changes in the world.
2.3 Theories of Climate Change
2.3.1 Bio Thermostat Theory
As critiqued by some of the geographers, that bio thermostat has been the predominant factors in regulating the changes in the climate. The biggest benefit of the bio thermostat is that it helps in adjusting the changes of the climatic eruptions in the environment of any specific country. These bio thermostats have been maintaining a consistent temperature so that people of the country can be calmed by the weather conditions. The steady maintenance of the changes in the climate can have good production of the crops (Moradi et al., 2018). Therefore, bio thermostat has been vital for the affecting of the climatic changes.
Figure 2.1: Bio Thermostat Theory
(Source: Mosavi, Soltani & Khalilian, 2020, 106332)
As opposed by some of the critics, that bio thermostats can boost up the technology and help in better energy use. The setup of the timing of the thermostats has been expensive and difficult put in. It is always not compatible with the service system, which can make some of the problems in the system.
2.3.2 Cloud Formation and Albedo Theory
As said by some of the critiques that cloud formation and albedo theory has been affecting the greenhouse gases (Chatterjee & Kapur, 2017). The benefit of this theory is that it has been strongly influencing the Earth’s energy budget. Thick clouds such as the stratocumulus have been reflecting the large amount of the incoming solar radiation, which means they have a high albedo (He et al., 2019). Thin clouds such as the Cirrus have been transmitting the solar radiation, which leads to low albedo, which can affect the environment in a much greater way (Mehta, Chandel, Jena & Jha, 2019). Therefore, cloud formation and albedo has been vital and significant.
Figure 2.2: Albedo Theory
(Source: Abd-Elmabod et al., 2020, 114453)
As opposed by some of the critiques that it has been creating cloud droplets, which are not at all suitable for the maintenance of the weather and temperature. It has been seen that albedo has been strongly raising the green houses as its incompatibility to balance with each other.
2.3.3 Ocean Currents: Thermohaline Theory
The ocean currents have the main authority of maintaining the changes in the climate. Ocean current has been inducing the regulation of the thermohaline, which has the capacity of checking the balances of the density and the temperature of the climate. Extensive mixing has taken place between the basins of the oceans. Therefore, this thermohaline has been reducing the differences between Earth’s oceanic global systems (Ali & Erenstein, 2017). This ocean current has been carrying a strong relation with the climate changes and has been maintaining its diverse effects on biodiversity. It can equally have the power to reduce the speed of the air, which can cause both positive and catastrophic changes.
Figure 2.3: Thermohaline Theory
(Source: Rahimi-Moghaddam, Kambouzia & Deihimfard, 2018, 5)
As contradicted by some of the critics, that sometimes there has been a number of the waves therefore, it will be of major difficulty for the thermohaline to maintain the capacity of the waves as its power of wave’s motion is not that strong for controlling the oceanic waves.
2.3.4 Planetary Motion Theory
Kepler has given three laws of the planetary motion theory. The three laws are that:
· All the planets of the world can move about the Sun in elliptical orbits having the Sun as one of the focus.
· Climate change has been essential for the regulation and the maintenance of the motion and the speed of the earth and its orbits (Perminov & Kuznetsov, 2018).
· The squares of the sidereal periods of the planets have been directly proportional to the men's distances of the Sun (Hakkim, Joseph, Gokul & Mufeedha, 2016). This law has been beneficial for the making of universe structure. It checks the balances between the coming of the rains as well as the suns.
Figure 2.4: Planetary Motion
(Source: Ojo & Baiyegunhi, 2020, 141151)
As opposed by some of the critiques, that planetary motion has been coagulating with the three laws still it destroys the gravitational forces of the planets, which have been moving about the Sun. The changes in the weather have been affected by this planetary motion, which increases the speed and velocity.
2.4 Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture
2.4.1 Positive Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture
The positive impacts are:
According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency in some of the areas, an increase in the temperature and the climatic changes has been benefiting the types of the crops, which have been planted there (Etwire, 2020). It has been allowing the farmers to cultivate more crops more commonly in the warmer places. The land can equally become much prone for cultivation purposes.
Increase climate changes specially temperature often resulting in longer growing seasons. It has been benefiting both the farmers as well as the consumers (Bhatnagar & Poonia, 2019). There have been the chances of the larger harvest for the crops, which make the...