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1) 1) What is Diabetes Mellitus? Briefly describe different types of Diabetes mellitus and their pathophysiology? 2) 2) Describe briefly about different insulin administration devices? (50 words) 3) 3) What are the different types of Oral hypoglycaemic agents? Give examples and briefly give their pharmacodynamics. 4) 4) Insulin therapy is one of the main medical management for clients with Diabetes mellitus. What are the different types of Insulin and briefly explain their pharmacodynamics? Give examples. 5) 5) Explain the nutritional management of client with Diabetes mellitus? 6) 6) What is the pathophysiology of Diabetic Ketoacidosis? What are the common signs and symptoms of DKA? What is the immediate management of DKA? 7) 7) List down five potential complications of diabetes 7.1) Macrovascular Diseases 7.2) Microvascular Diseases 7.3) Neuropathy 7.4) Sexual Dysfunction 7.5) Dental Health issues 7.6) Immunologic response8) 8) 8) Briefly describe the major challenges faced by the diabetes care delivery and diabetes related services? 9) 9) Describe environmental and social factors contributing to diabetes in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population? 10) 10) Describe Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar Non-ketotic Syndrome (HHNS) and Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar state? 11) 11) Briefly describe the foot care of client with diabetes mellitus. 12) 12) Describe about Diabetic care plans? 13) 13) To manage diabetes mellitus holistically, clients are encouraged to do lifestyle modifications. Some of the lifestyle modifications are listed below. Explain why these modifications are important for the client and how they could achieve them. Lifestyle Modification Why this lifestyle modification is important? How could the client achieve it? 13.1) Glycaemic control 13.2) Weight management 13.3) Smoking cessation 13.4) Foot care 13.5) Eye care Please write why this lifestyle modifications is important and how could the client achieve it for each modifications .14) Discuss on Self-monitoring of blood glucose level. When should clients check BGL? What safety checks should they perform for the BGL machine? What should be clients cautious about while doing frequent BGL assessment? 15) Explain the factors influencing self-esteem of the person with diabetes? 16) As an Enrolled nurse caring for a client with diabetes who is from an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander background, what steps would you take to manage cultural safety?
Answered 8 days AfterSep 29, 2022

Answer To: I have attached the file below

Dr Insiyah R. answered on Oct 01 2022
21 Votes
1. Ans: Chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic condition with several potential causes. Hyperglycemia, or an increase in blood sugar levels, is a hallmark of the disease, and it develops when insulin production or insulin action is impaired. There are two types of DM
· Type 1 DM: People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ket
oacidosis since the disease is characterised by the death of pancreatic islet B cells by an inflammatory process.
· Type 2 DM: The more common kind of diabetes, type 2, is caused by insulin resistance with a failure in compensatory insulin production (Cole & Florez,2020).
2. Ans: Syringe: A syringe is an instrument that has a hollow core, a plunger, a needle, and a detachable needle guard. For your convenience, lines have been drawn on the syringes outside to help you draw up the proper dosage of insulin.
Jet Injection: Jet injection devices help diabetics who hate needles. Injector stores many insulin dosages. To give insulin through the skin, the patient presses a button while holding the injector to the skin. Bruises may ensue. Jet injectors are seldom used.
Insulin Pen: A typical insulin pen is about the size of a regular pen. It's an improvement over the traditional vial and syringe, useful for the visually impaired, and prevents inco
ect dosage.
Insulin Pump: The insulin in the pump is either quick or short-acting. Premeal insulin injections and a continuous, low-dose insulin infusion throughout the day are used to control diabetes.
3. Ans: Hypoglycemic medications may be categorised into seven different groups: biguanides,
DPP-4 inhibitors.
Glucosidase inhibitors
Incretin mimetics (Rohani,2019)
Example: Biguanides-Antihyperglycemics and hepatic insulin sensitizers (biguanides) are an older class of medicines that function by decreasing hepatic glucose production and, to a lesser degree, increasing sensitivity to insulin in hepatic and peripheral tissues (Lorenzati et al,2010).
4. Ans: The 5 types of insulin are:
(i)Rapid-acting insulin: After injection, rapid-acting insulin begins to function anywhere from 2.5 to 20 minutes later.
(ii)Short-acting insulin: If you need to drop your blood sugar quickly, inject yourself with short-acting insulin 30 minutes before meals. The peak impact occurs 2–5 hours following the injection and lasts 6–8 hours.
(iii)intermediate-acting insulin: After being injected, the effects of these insulins begin to take effect within 60 to 90 minutes, reach their peak between 4 to 12 hours, and persist for 16 to 24 hours.
Mixed insulin: Insulin that has already been blended comprises both rapid-acting and short-acting insulin, as well as an intermediate-acting insulin.
(iv)long-acting insulin: Insulin secretion that is very gradual, with no discernible peak. The effects of a single injection might continue for up to a day. It's typically administered through once-daily injection, however, twice-daily dosing is possible. (Goyal & Jialal,2018)
5. Ans: Proper diabetic nutrition involves consuming a wide range of nutritious food categories, including but not limited to food items that are both healthy and delicious, such as fruits and vegetables. Grains that have not been refined, include whole wheat grain, oats,
own rice, barley and quinoa. Foods high in protein include tofu, almonds, seeds, beans, lentils, fish, eggs, and poultry. (Johns et al,2018)
6. Ans: The condition known as...

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