Answer To: I have attached the file below
Dr Insiyah R. answered on Oct 01 2022
1. Ans: Chronic diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic condition with several potential causes. Hyperglycemia, or an increase in blood sugar levels, is a hallmark of the disease, and it develops when insulin production or insulin action is impaired. There are two types of DM
· Type 1 DM: People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis since the disease is characterised by the death of pancreatic islet B cells by an inflammatory process.
· Type 2 DM: The more common kind of diabetes, type 2, is caused by insulin resistance with a failure in compensatory insulin production (Cole & Florez,2020).
2. Ans: Syringe: A syringe is an instrument that has a hollow core, a plunger, a needle, and a detachable needle guard. For your convenience, lines have been drawn on the syringes outside to help you draw up the proper dosage of insulin.
Jet Injection: Jet injection devices help diabetics who hate needles. Injector stores many insulin dosages. To give insulin through the skin, the patient presses a button while holding the injector to the skin. Bruises may ensue. Jet injectors are seldom used.
Insulin Pen: A typical insulin pen is about the size of a regular pen. It's an improvement over the traditional vial and syringe, useful for the visually impaired, and prevents inco
Insulin Pump: The insulin in the pump is either quick or short-acting. Premeal insulin injections and a continuous, low-dose insulin infusion throughout the day are used to control diabetes.
3. Ans: Hypoglycemic medications may be categorised into seven different groups: biguanides,
Incretin mimetics (Rohani,2019)
Example: Biguanides-Antihyperglycemics and hepatic insulin sensitizers (biguanides) are an older class of medicines that function by decreasing hepatic glucose production and, to a lesser degree, increasing sensitivity to insulin in hepatic and peripheral tissues (Lorenzati et al,2010).
4. Ans: The 5 types of insulin are:
(i)Rapid-acting insulin: After injection, rapid-acting insulin begins to function anywhere from 2.5 to 20 minutes later.
(ii)Short-acting insulin: If you need to drop your blood sugar quickly, inject yourself with short-acting insulin 30 minutes before meals. The peak impact occurs 2–5 hours following the injection and lasts 6–8 hours.
(iii)intermediate-acting insulin: After being injected, the effects of these insulins begin to take effect within 60 to 90 minutes, reach their peak between 4 to 12 hours, and persist for 16 to 24 hours.
Mixed insulin: Insulin that has already been blended comprises both rapid-acting and short-acting insulin, as well as an intermediate-acting insulin.
(iv)long-acting insulin: Insulin secretion that is very gradual, with no discernible peak. The effects of a single injection might continue for up to a day. It's typically administered through once-daily injection, however, twice-daily dosing is possible. (Goyal & Jialal,2018)
5. Ans: Proper diabetic nutrition involves consuming a wide range of nutritious food categories, including but not limited to food items that are both healthy and delicious, such as fruits and vegetables. Grains that have not been refined, include whole wheat grain, oats,
own rice, barley and quinoa. Foods high in protein include tofu, almonds, seeds, beans, lentils, fish, eggs, and poultry. (Johns et al,2018)
6. Ans: The condition known as...