I need an essay written answer the 2 questions in the attached word doc
ECO 502 – Analysis of Business Conditions
Dr. Michael S. Miller
Directions: Answer both questions. They are worth 25 points each. Length per question: 2.0 – 3.0 pages, double spaced.
1. [For this question use the course materials on business cycles and access the website of the NBER, with a focus on the business cycle material (https://www.nber.org/research/business-cycle-dating ).] Assume that you work for Atlantis National Bank. You were discussing the current economy over a burger at lunch with your boss, not surprising given all the current talk of inflation and recession, and she learned that you are taking a course in applied macroeconomics. It turns out that as a bank executive she has always been curious about economic downturns: just what exactly is a recession and how are the dates of recessions determined? Lucky you. She asks you to send her an interoffice memo that explains in clear language the definition of a recession as well as information on who determines the dates of a recession, what methods are used to set the dates, including what data are tracked to determine the timing of business cycle peaks and troughs. (This is the format I want you to use, please – an internal memo format; and be as formal or informal as you would in an actual memo to your actual boss.) Use as your sources in preparing this memo the following from the NBER website: the statement on the determinants of the dates; the tab on frequently asked questions; and the memos announcing the peak and the trough of the 2007-09 Great Recession and/or the very short pandemic recession. Part of your job in this memo is to determine what is important to tell her and what questions about the process need to be answered and what are those answers are. An example or two from the memos might help illustrate exactly how the NBER does its work. In closing let your boss know whether knowing the timing of the cycle will be as important to your banking firm as it would be for a company such as Navistar that makes trucks and busses or a food provider such as McDonald’s.
2. As noted in the first question the issue of recession is front and center in the minds of Americans. Assume that you have been chosen to be an economic advisor to the U.S. President and you have been asked to have ready for his policy team a White Paper on the general characteristics that would constitute an ideal and effective fiscal policy to deal with the economic slowdown caused by the pandemic. Note that this is a summary of policy in general, not a specific policy for this fiscal situation. In the White Paper set out (and use hypothetical examples if appropriate or needed to make your point):
· What is the central concept behind the use of fiscal policy in a market economy?
· What are the likely root causes of recessions and why might fiscal policy be necessary to soften the downturn?
· What are the general characteristics of an ideal fiscal policy?
· What are our general policy options and what are the strengths and weaknesses of these options?
· What is fiscal policy devised to accomplish with regard to the major indictors of the economy, i.e., how would we measure success?
· How will fiscal policy ideally be financed and why does financing matter?
· What lasting effects, if any, should this policy have on behavior and the economy?