Learning Outcomes This assessment task contributes to the following Course Learning Outcomes: 2. Prepare and present both written and oral reports in scientific language, including referencing specialist literature. 3. Demonstrate evidence of searching, reading and critical reviewing of relevant literature Introduction In this task you will search, retrieve and read published scientific literature that underpins your WIL project topic. You were asked to obtain 2 papers from your supervisor relevant to your project in Week 1 and these can be included or used as a starting point for your literature searching. Using the literature you will synthesise the material to write a project introduction in the form of a short literature review of the background to your research project. Relevance in the Workplace Biomedical scientists can work on many different aspects of a research project, it may be the beginning of a new project, or the middle of an ongoing project or it ma be at the translational stage to clinical implementation. Irrespective of the stage of project a biomedical scientist always needs to know how their work fits into the larger topic area. A review of the literature provides the scientist context for their work, it allows rigorous selection of methods that should be used, it minimises duplicating research, and identifies innovation and novelty. The writing will help you articulate your research goals, select the right methods and guide you to communicate relevant and new results at the end of your project. Task 1. Discuss with your supervisor an appropriate topic title for your Project Introduction. Students that have WIL projects at external organisations, or are unsure, should contact Narin to discuss their writing topic by the end of Week 1. 2. Use the resources provided below and the content from Workshop 2 to draft and write your Project Introduction. 3. It should be 600 - 1000 words in length and contain approximately 15 cited original research papers. A maximum of 3 review papers can be used. 4. Citations and references must be in Vancouver format, see RMIT library for guidelines ( https:/www.rmit.edu.au/library/study/referencing ). 5. The marking rubric is available on the Assignment page. 6. You are allowed to provide a draft to your supervisor 10 days before the due date for feedback. This gives your supervisor 1 week to review and return and enough time for you to make corrections. 7. Upload your completed Project Introduction via Canvas. Submissions will be reviewed for plagiarism via Turnitin. 8. This task will provide you with formative feedback on your scientific writing via Canvas Speedgrader. After incorporating the feedback you can use your Introduction in a shortened or modified form in your final project report. Criteria Abstract A single paragraph that accurately represents the content of the literature review and contains (1) relevant background information to the research topic (2) the research problem is identified (3) recent literature on the topic is summarised and (4) the purpose of the review is clearly stated. Introduction This section of 1 - 3 paragraphs should establish the context and the importance of the review. It should (1) contain project relevant background information (2) identify the research issue/problem and (3) give an overview of the points covered in the literature review. Body of the review The body of the review will have a structure with the following elements (1) Subheadings that separate the review into connected themes (2) Gaps in the current knowledge are evident and clear (3) Each theme presents relevant and logical, synthesised information with an evaluation of the literature findings (4) Main findings are summarised. Synthesis of information and citations Information in the review has the following elements (1) Paraphrasing and synthesising information in own words (2) Quotes are used sparingly (3) Information is integrated as evidence not isolated text (4) the literature cited includes key papers appropriate to the text. Referencing The references will have the following elements (1) Approximately 15 references are listed using Vancouver format (2) are cited using Vancouver format (3) the majority are original research articles (4) most are highly cited key papers. Writing The review has the following elements (1) Well constructed sentences with good grammar and a clear meaning and (2) Correct length (3) Vocabulary is appropriate and has good use of words (4) Spelling is correct. 4 Pts Excellent All4 elements are present. 4 Pts Excellent All 3 elements are clear and logical. 6 Pts Excellent All 4 elements are present. 8 Pts Excellent All4 elements are present. 4 Pts Excellent All4 elements are present. 4 Pts Excellent All 4 elements are present. 3 Pts Very good 1 element is missing 3Pts Very good 1 element is missing 4 Pts Very good 1 element is missing 6 Pts Very good 1 element is missing 3 Pts Very good 1 element is missing 3 Pts Very good 1 element is missing Ratings 2Pts Good 2 elements are missing. 2Pts Good 2 elements are missing. 2Pts Good 2 elements are missing. 4 Pts Good 2 elements are missing. 2Pts Good 2 elements are missing. 2Pts Good 2 elements are missing. 1Pts Fair 3 elements are missing. 1Pts Fair 3 elements are missing. 1Pts Fair 3 elements are missing. 2Pts Fair 3 elements are missing. 1Pts Fair 3 elements are missing. 1Pts Fair 3 elements are missing. Pts 0 Pts Needs work Not 4 pts present 0 Pts Needs work Not 4 pts present 0 Pts Needs work Not present 6 pts 0 Pts Needs work Not 8 pts present 0 Pts Needs work Not 4 pts present 0 Pts Needs work Not 4 pts present Total points: 30 PowerPoint Presentation A Literature Review Professor Melissa Churchill Scientific Writing Types of Scientific Writings • Opinions • Letters • Editorials • Short Communications • Full Manuscripts (Scientific Papers)- most common and form the basis of your projects. • Reviews • NB Wikipedia is not considered a scientific writing! Importance of Scientific Writings • To report your outcomes, ‘shape’ the understanding of topics, influence future research directions broadly. Structure of a Scientific paper (full manuscript): this format will be the basis for lab base reports • Can vary depending on the scientific journal being targeted for publication Title Abstract Key words and abbreviations (varies from journal to journal) Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgments and COIs References. Structure of a Review (non lab based, not including meta analysis of published data): Title Abstract: yes and no Key words and abbreviations (varies from journal to journal) Introduction: includes aspects of a discussion Materials and Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgments and COIs References. Literature review on a topic related to your workplace and work activities. The topic should be current, relevant to both your work and your interest, and represent an area where you and your supervisor feel you would benefit from a greater depth of knowledge, and an area where your supervisor and / or work unit would benefit from a report being prepared. Structure of a Lab based report: same as for a scientific paper • degree of flexibility, but must have common components • informed by rubric and by supervisors Title Abstract Key words and abbreviations (varies from journal to journal) Introduction Materials and Methods Results Discussion Acknowledgments and COIs References. Plagiarism Plagiarism is a serious issue, no matter where its done Definition of Plagiarism - the presentation of the work, idea or creation of another person as though it is your own. It is a form of cheating and is a very serious academic offence that may lead to expulsion from the University. Plagiarised material can be drawn from, and presented in, written, graphic and visual form, including electronic data, and oral presentations. Plagiarism occurs when the origin of the material used is not appropriately cited. Dr Joanne Hart, 2012 Examples of plagiarism include: Copying sentences or paragraphs word-for-word from one or more sources without proper citation; Closely paraphrasing sentences, paragraphs, ideas or themes without proper citation; Piecing together text from one or more sources and adding only linking sentences; Copying or submitting whole or parts of computer files without acknowledging their source; Copying designs or works of art and submitting them as your original work; Copying a whole or any part of another student’s work; Submitting work as your own that someone else has done for you. Enabling Plagiarism - the act of assisting or allowing another person to plagiarise or to copy your own work Advice to students: Ensure that all submitted work is your own work. If you are collaborating with other students, you must ensure that you acknowledge the others involved in the collaboration and that you submit your own work resulting from the collaboration. Do not allow others to plagiarise your work. Plagiarism is not acceptable as part of your learning experience RMIT University Plagiarism Policy can be found at http://www.rmit.edu.au/policies/academic#plagiarism Dr Joanne Hart, 2012 Please be aware that the University considers plagiarism or enabling plagiarism as serious offences and can result in penalties that include receiving a zero for the particular assessment task or even suspension from the program. http://www.rmit.edu.au/policies/academic#plagiarism Components of Report Title • very important as it provides the reader with first indication of nature of the work • Is the basis of literature searches for those seeking scientific papers on a particular topic. • Succinct and informative…..its a balance between providing information about the topic, exciting the reader about the paper and being very accurate, self explanatory Tips • Fine tune the title once your findings are clear • Don’t use jargon and abbreviations • Don’t mention what you don’t deliver….keep it accurate Components of Report Title (continued) Example: "The Effects of Ear Rubs and Food treats on the Happiness of Populations of canus lupus familiaris, the Golden Retriever” ✓ This title reports exactly what the researcher has done by stating three things: • The factors that were manipulated (ear rubs, food). • The parameter that was measured (happiness). • The specific organism that was studied (canus lupus familiaris, the Golden Retriever). "The Effects of Ear Rubs and Food on Canines” ✘ ? What parameters are being measured ? What type of canine are being investigated (Components of Report continued) Abstract “Aside from the title most often read, most easily accessed” ‘How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper’ Used as an initial measure of your work • ‘Will I bother to read the rest of the paper?’ • ‘Will I send this manuscript out for review’ Abstract: in ~250 • the purpose of the work, • methodology • major findings and their significance Components of Report continued Abstract Tips • Consider it a mini version of the manuscript • That is: use a formula that helps with the structure (introduction, material and methods, results, and discussion), some journals expect headings, most don’t. • Needs to be independent: that is without the complete manuscript the reader is confident about what was done, how it was done, what was found and what it means!