Fundamentals of Biostatistics, Spring 2021 GPLS 630 Spring 2021 Instructions: · Please upload your answers to Blackboard in Word and/or GraphPad documents by midnight on Sunday, May 9 · You may use...

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Fundamentals of Biostatistics, Spring 2021
GPLS 630 Spring 2021
Instructions:
· Please upload your answers to Blackboard in Word and/or GraphPad documents by midnight on Sunday, May 9
· You may use any available resources (class notes, videos, textbooks, etc).
· You may use Prism and GraphPad for your graphs
Problem#1 (12 points):
It is hypothesized that a medication can protect against renal injury. To assess this hypothesisin, mice are randomly assigned to either receive the medication or not. Then mice are exposed to a toxin known to cause renal damage. Urine protein (a measure of renal damage) is measured at baseline and after exposure to the toxin in both groups of mice.
The resulting data are provided on the spreadsheet called “proteinuria data”.
Analyze these data and answer the following scientific questions:
A. Plot the data and comment on the insights you obtain from the plot.
B. What is the estimated impact of the toxin on urine protein levels among mice not treated with the medication (provide a point estimate and confidence interval and interpret your findings)
C. Is there strong evidence that the impact of the toxin is different among those who received the medication than among those who did not. Provide a p-value and interpret your findings.
Provide your answers in a Word file.
Problem#2 (11 points):
To investigate the degree to which a compound is a carcinogen,rats are exposed to a high level of the compount. Among 20 rats, 8 develop tumors within 2 weeks..
A. What is an estimate of the risk of acquiring a tumor within 2 weeks in these rats? What is a 95% confidence interval for this risk. Interpret your findings.
A treatment is thought to reduce the risk of tumors. So in another experiment, 20 additional rats are given the treatment and then exposed to the compound and 3 develop tumors within 2 weeks.
B. Is there strong evidence that the treatment reduces the risk of cancer given this exposure?
Suppose you want to perform a new study.
C. Based on the findings in parts A and B, how many rates would you need in two equal groups to have 80% power to detect a significant protective effect of the medication (using a two-sided test with alpha=0.05).
Provide your answers in a Word file.
Problem#3 (12 points):
Freshly isolated T cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of a growth factor (interleukin 2) for 48 hrs after which the cell proliferation was measured by a fluorescence-based assay.
A. What is the EC50 (concentration at which there is a 50% response) of the interleukin 2 in this assay?
B. Does the EC50 change if you exclude outliers?
C. In parallel to this experiment, cells that were seeded in other wells of the same plate were treated with either 10% FBS (positive control) or medium alone (negative control). Normalize the effect of interleukin 2 and report it as percentage for this plate.
D. Do you think this cell proliferation assay is reliable? Show your calculation.
· Provide your answers via this Word file and GraphPad file (graphs and analysis).
Answered 2 days AfterMay 05, 2021

Solution

Anu Sirohi answered on May 08 2021
29 Votes

Problem#1 (12 points):
It is hypothesized that a medication can protect against renal injury. To assess this hypothesisin, mice are randomly assigned to either receive the medication or not. ...

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