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For the exclusive use of A. MOHAM, 2022.
This document is authorized for use only by ALYCIA MOHAM in Negotiations and Conflict Management, Spring 2022 taught by Rex Hammond, Virginia University - Lynchburg from Jan 2022
to Jun 2022.
XXXXXXXXXXNonve
al Communication in Negotiation
2
Now, compare your reading of this single snapshot with what was actually happening. The retail
operator, Neils (right), had just made a proposal to the real estate development team of Daniel and
David. Daniel (left) is enthusiastic about Neils’ offer, but David (center) is not convinced they should
accept it. Daniel is trying to get David, his own partner, to agree to the deal.
Did you get the gist of it? Some people are uncanny in their readings of this picture, making
interpretations that square exactly with what was taking place. Others are not quite as precise but
have a sense that the real negotiation is between the two ostensible teammates, Daniel and David,
and not across the table with Neils. Very few people who see the picture are utterly off the mark.
Think about what you were looking at to make your own interpretation. Maybe it was their
gestures. Neils has his hand to his chin in a thoughtful pose, as if he were waiting for something to
happen. Daniel’s hands are up, as if he were making a point. By contrast, David’s hands are drawing
ack, perhaps not agreeing. Or you might have noted what they were doing with their eyes: Neils is
clearly watching what is going on between the other two. Their
oader gestures and postures may
offer clues as well: Daniel seems to be moving toward his partner, while David is leaning back.
In isolation, no one of these things is meaningful, but together they reveal important aspects of the
interaction. Moreover, the behavior was not deliberate; while it may be easy for us to glean meaning
from the picture as detached observers, the parties themselves may have been only partially aware of
what their behavior expressed. If we had been at the bargaining table ourselves, we would have had
to cope with a constant stream of perceptions—images, sounds, emotions—with no pause button to
let us stop and separate important signals from all the background noise. Add to that the pressure to
succeed (or survive) in a high-stakes situation, and it’s a small wonder that when we interact we
often miss important nonve
al messages.
Negotiators who nevertheless manage to look for to nonve
al cues have a distinct advantage in
dealing with other people. They are more likely to know when a “yes” means real commitment to a
deal and when it is said with reservation; they can distinguish real threats and promises from those
that are only bluster; and they can spot confusion and unspoken anger, and thus defuse difficult
situations and build trust. People thus skilled at reading nonve
al communication may do it
intuitively, but they do not have some special ESP. They are simply alert to behaviors that the rest of
us often overlook or misinterpret.2
This note distills the practical implications of cu
ent research on nonve
al communication.
Specifically, the first section sketches different kinds of nonve
al behavior: facial expressions, eye
movements, physical gestures, parave
al cues, posture, and “personal space.” The next section looks
more deeply at the interactive nature of nonve
al communication, specifically, how one person’s
ehavior both influences and reflects what others do. The final section suggests how negotiators can
make better use of nonve
al communication, even on the fly. The following themes run throughout:
1. We communicate far more information to other people than is conveyed by our words alone.3

2 While experts in reading nonve
al communication have long been thought of as possessing a rare, virtually unteachable
talent, in the past decade there has been a surge of “experts” in nonve
al communication who claim to be able to teach
anybody the art of “reading people.” Companies such as SpeedReadingPeople based out of Hartford, CT now offer training
professionals in many disciplines how to read the nonve
al behaviors of others, and how to use these observations to “reach”
one’s client, patient, or suspect
3 A reviewer for the movie Rushmore describes how words are sometimes unnecessary. In one scene, a young Max Fischer
(Jason Schwartzman) confesses to his older friend and rival Herman Blume (Bill Mu
ay) that his father is actually a ba
er, not
an illustrious neurosurgeon as he had earlier claimed. “If you want to pick one shot from this year’s movies, try the look on Bill
Mu
ay’s face as he shakes hands with Fischer senior: puzzlement, disbelief, a speck of outrage, the quiet rush of truth, and last
For the exclusive use of A. MOHAM, 2022.
This document is authorized for use only by ALYCIA MOHAM in Negotiations and Conflict Management, Spring 2022 taught by Rex Hammond, Virginia University - Lynchburg from Jan 2022
to Jun 2022.
Nonve
al Communication in Negotiation XXXXXXXXXX
3
2. Our nonve
al signals sometimes contradict the words we use and subvert our objectives.
3. Much of this communication is less than fully conscious. Many behaviors are not deliberate,
nor are we aware of performing them. Likewise, while we are all affected by the behavior of
others, we do not fully appreciate how it shapes our own perceptions and emotional state.
4. Reading nonve
al communication is an art, not a science, but with practice and reflection we
can become more responsive and influential.
5. Nonve
al communication must be understood in the context of the
oader set of
interactions among all the parties. (Just think how the individual cues in Figure 1 mean much
more when considered in relation to one another.)
From Snake Oil to Science
Much that is written about body language in popular books and magazines unfortunately has
little basis in science and even less practical value. Some is downright silly. For example, two self-
described experts declare: “Baseball caps, hats, and ponytails on a balding man can . . . indicate
esistance to growing older (or growing up).”4 Manuals on salesmanship are likewise full of tips
anging from the obvious to the dubious. One author claims, “We . . . close our fists when threatened,
such as a woman clutching her purse or someone gra
ing the arms of a chair. Threatening people,
likewise, shake their fist and bang it on the table.”5 By contrast he notes that an “open palm has
always been a green-light sign of the friendly person who can be trusted and counted on.”6 Evidence
for his proposition: the facts that saints are often depicted with palms up and that people hold their
hands up when taking oaths in court.
Such nonsense has given the study of body language a bad name. As Dave Zielinski observes,
“Many body-language
omides are little more than u
an myths that have seeped into our belief
systems by sheer repetition, passed along in how-to books or at industry conferences like so much
gossip. Many of these axioms ignore the subtleties of changing . . . contexts, speakers’ personal
comfort levels or their desire to communicate in an authentic, unselfconscious way. Others are pure
unk.”7
Facial
Answered 2 days AfterApr 11, 2022

Solution

Ananya answered on Apr 14 2022
12 Votes
Running Head: NEGOTIOATION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT            1
NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT                    2
NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Table of Contents
Question 1    3
Question 2    3
Question 1
The most valuable lesson that I learned from the course Negotiations and Conflict Management is developing the co
ect strategy of negotiation. A co
ect strategy helps in maintaining the relation between the two parties involved in the negotiation and removes the conflict over an issue. Such strategies can be formed through an interpersonal leadership style in team management where the employees are encouraged to contribute their ideas on several aspects to remove the conflicts and maintain co-operation.
The win-win...
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