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BUACC3706 - Assessment Task 2.pdf
Federa&on    Business    School        
BUACC3706:    Financial    Accoun&ng    
Assessment    Task    2    -    ASSIGNMENT        
Contribu&on    to    overall    assessment:        30%    
In    a    folder    called    “Assignment    Papers    and    Rio    Tinto    Report”    on    Moodle,    you    will    find    8    papers    
that    address    various    aspects    of    sustainability    and    environmental    repor=ng.    Rio    Tinto’s    2017    
sustainability    development    report    is    also    uploaded    in    this    folder.        
Required    (word    limit    2500    words)        
A.     Cri=cally    review    any    six    of    the    eight    papers;    
B.     Cri=cally    discuss    the    2017    Rio    Tinto    sustainable    development    report    
Please    note:    
• A    cri=cal    review    requires    you    to    summarise    and    evaluate    each    paper.    
• To    be    cri=cal    does    not    mean    to    cri=cise    in    a    nega=ve    way.        It    requires    you    to    ques=on    the    
given    informa=on    and    view    put    forth    by    the    author(s).        It    requires    you    to    evaluate    the    
issues    raised    in    a    paper.    
• Evalua=on    means    presen=ng    the    strengths    and    weaknesses    of    a    paper.    
• Overall,    wri=ng    a    cri=cal    review    involves    analysis    and    evalua=on.    
Addi&onal    Informa&on:    
Watch    video    and    read    text    on    how    to    think    cri=cally    before    star=ng    your    assignment:    
Addi=onally,    there    is    also    a    document    uploaded    on    Moodle    ‘wri=ng    a    cri=cal    review’.    
Further    Addi&onal    Informa&on    
The    following    maTers    should    be    given    par=cular    aTen=on:    
1.     Your    assignment    must    be    submiTed    no    later    than    the    11.55pm,    Sunday    ending    week    10    
of    the    semester.        
     All    assignments    are    to    be    submiTed    via    the    dropbox    on    Moodle    
     Assessment    tasks    submiTed    aYer    the    due    date,    without    prior    approval    or    a
will    be    penalised    by    ten    percent.        Requests    for    extension    of    =me    must    be    made    with    your    
lecturer    and    based    on    Special    Considera=on    guidelines.    
2.     Use    12    point    Times    font    with    2    cm    margins    on    your    page    and    1.5    line    spacing.    
3.     Remember    to    reference    your    wri=ng    and    include    a    reference    list    at    the    end    of    the    report.    
4.     Marks    have    been    allocated    to    each    specific    sec=on    of    your    assignment.    
Chapter    30    –    Accoun=ng    for    corporate    social    responsibility    
Craig    Deegan,    (2016)    
BUACC3706    -    Assessment    Task    2    -    Assignment    Marking    Scheme    
Names:                         Student    Name    and    ID:    
Bases    of    assessment Marks    Possible
Part    A:    10    marks    for    each    paper        
Research    Paper    (1)    
Research    Paper    (2)    
Research    Paper    (3)    
Research    Paper    (4)    
Research    Paper    (5)    
Research    Paper    (6)    
            /    60
Part    B:    
The    2017    Rio    Tinto    sustainable    development    report    
            /    40
Overall    Presenta&on    –    including    cover    page,    line    
spacing,    page    numbering,    referencing.
            /    20
Total    marks                 /    120
Total    out    of    30%
writing a critical review.pdf

A case of tailing storage.pdf
Resources Policy XXXXXXXXXX–128
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Resources Policy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate
Environmentally sustainable mining: The case of tailings storage
Erica Schoenberge
Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA
a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history:
Received 13 November 2015
Received in revised form
24 April 2016
Accepted 25 April 2016
Available online 18 May 2016
Mine tailings
Environment and society
Environmental regulation
x.doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX
07/& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ail address: XXXXXXXXXX
a b s t r a c t
This paper addresses the question of whether mining can be done in a way that contains and remediates
environmental impacts and thereby safeguards the livelihoods of local populations. It focuses on tailings
storage facilities (TSF) as the source of most mining-related disasters. It compares outcomes at three
mines – two which ended in disaster and one notable success – to try to get at what factors are critical in
producing these outcomes. Although the design and construction of TSFs is technically challenging,the
paper concludes that the basic causes of TSF failure are political, not technical. A second purpose of this
paper is to suggest that a social scientific analysis of engineered projects needs to pay attention to the
& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Mining is unavoidably environmentally disruptive. Huge
quantities of earth and rock are moved, some of it processed to
ecover valuable minerals, the rest discarded as waste. The mate-
ials that are left over after processing, known as tailings, are es-
timated to be produced at a rate of anywhere from five to fourteen
illion tons per year. They may include sulfide minerals that can
induce the formation of acid drainage, other processing chemicals,
and process water. Tailings can be disposed of in a variety of ways.
In the worst of the cases, they are dumped into adjacent water-
odies, whether rivers, lakes or the sea. They may be backfilled
into pits left over from underground mining. Much of the time
however, tailings are stored behind dams constructed of mine
wastes (Edraki et al., 2014; Adiansyah et al., 2015).
Environmental disruption related to mining is inevitable. En-
vironmental disaster, on the other hand, should not be, the more
so as environmental disasters often trigger social disasters. The
most critical arena for reducing the likelihood of mining-related
environmental disasters lies in the handling of tailings.
Tailings dam failures account for about three-fourths of majo
mining-related environmental disasters (MMSD, 2002a). A tailings
storage facility (TSF) can occupy several square kilometers of land
with dams that can reach in the tens of meters. Tailings dams are
not like water retention dams. They are built in stages as mining
and waste production progresses and they are built usually of
mine wastes rather than concrete. Water management is the cri-
tical problem. An adequate amount of freeboard must be main-
tained, cali
ated on maximum likely storm activity. If water is
adjacent to the dam itself, erosional or seepage processes may lead
eaching. The foundational geology is also a critical issue
earing on the stability of the embankments. TSFs in seismically
active or unusually high rainfall areas are especially vulnerable
(Vick, 1990; McLeod and Mu
ay, 2003).
The technical challenges of storing mine wastes are significant.
Nevertheless, I will argue here that the principal causes of TSF
failures are political rather than technical. Much is known within
the mine engineering community about how to manage tailings in
an environmentally sustainable way (Vick, XXXXXXXXXXThis generally
involves different techniques for removing the water. These tech-
niques are costly, however. Some companies may adopt them
voluntarily. It seems reasonable to suppose, however, that until the
companies generally are held to higher standards of best practice
in managing tailings, we will continue to see catastrophic TSF
Best practice bears on two issues in particular for the purposes
of this paper. The first concerns when and how environmental
considerations – in particular, the design of TSFs – are built into the
mine development process. The second concerns the actual tech-
niques involved.
I will show that when mining companies are held to the
highest standards, they can and do meet them. Whether or not
they are held to those standards depends in significant measure on
the regulatory environment. How exigent are the regulations, how
www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/ XXXXXXXXXX
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX
crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX&domain=pdf
crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX&domain=pdf
crossmark.crossref.org/dialog/?doi=10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX&domain=pdf
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resourpol XXXXXXXXXX
E. Schoenberger / Resources Policy XXXXXXXXXX–128120
comprehensive are they, and how well are they enforced? The
answers to these questions, I will suggest, have in part to do with
the influence of the industry in particular jurisdictions compared
with other land-intensive uses, especially as this bears on reg-
ulatory capacity and competence. Second, the social composition
of the su
ounding population also matters. Local populations with
political and financial resources will have a much greater chance of
escaping environmental disasters than those without such
In this paper, I will explore the histories of three mines. Two of
them suffered major TSF dam collapses with widespread and on-
going environmental damage: the Ok Tedi mine in Papua New
Guinea (PNG), and the Mount Polley mine in British Columbia. The
third mine – the McLaughlin mine in Northern California – is a rare
success story in which all of the environmental dislocations ne-
cessarily associated with mining were confined on site and, to a
significant degree, remediated after active mining ceased. The TSF
has retained its integrity. I have explored the Ok Tedi and
McLaughlin mine histories elsewhere and will summarize them
iefly here (Schoenberger, XXXXXXXXXXThe third case is more recent,
dating to August 2014. I will focus on the construction and
maintenance of tailings dams.
What I want to work through in this paper is why the failures
failed and why the McLaughlin mine succeeded at mining in an
environmentally sound and responsible way. Because the en-
vironmental damages of mining are closely linked to social harms
(through impacts on livelihoods, exposure to environmental toxins
and the like), it is particularly worthwhile getting at the causes of
oth success and failure in an effort to determine whether mining
can increasingly be done in a way that contains and remediates
environmental harms.
A second purpose of this paper is to suggest that a social sci-
entific analysis of engineered projects needs to pay attention to
the engineering. Because of the complex interplay among the
environmental, the social and the engineered, we risk missing
important information if we treat the engineered as a kind of black
ox. The reverse is probably also true. A quick search through
ecent journal publications on the topic of tailings storage facilities
shows that they are all in technical journals unlikely to reach a
social science or policy audience.
An important and promising exception to this is the 2011 pape
y Franks et al. in the journal Resources Policy. It provides an as-
sessment of the advantages and disadvantages of a range of waste
disposal methods and proposes a set of principles that could be
used to guide industry practice (Franks et al., XXXXXXXXXXI think we
need to press further in three ways.
First, it is clear that best practice under these principles will be
more expensive than many of the approaches that are in use today.
The industry as a whole has expressed its commitment to more
socially and environmentally responsible methods and, all othe
things equal, many operations can afford the additional costs and
may well implement them voluntarily (ICMM, XXXXXXXXXXBut marginal
operations may be hard-pressed or simply unwilling to adopt
them. Declining ore grades and declining commodity prices se-
parately and together are no doubt putting considerable pressure
on mining companies at the margin (Mudd, XXXXXXXXXXSo we need to
consider the degree to which voluntary adherence to the princi-
ples proposed by Franks et al. can be relied upon.
Second, I will try to show that the way the design of TSFs is
integrated into the overall development plan of the mine matters.
ief, it needs to be an integral part of the process of designing
the mine itself rather than being viewed as a separate problem.
Third, there is a question of who is able to comment author-
itatively on the design and operation of TSFs. The industry as a
whole is increasingly committed to meaningful participation by
local communities which is all to the good. Here, though, I want to
argue in favor of binding independent peer review of both the
design and operation of TSFs in additional to local stakeholde
Section 2 of this paper describes the research method. Sub-
sequent sections (3 through 5) describe and analyze the perfor-
mance of the three mines in question. Section 4 considers the
problems of TSFs more generally, focusing on what is considered
est practice by the engineering community and what conditions
might foster the wider implementation of this knowledge in the
design, construction, maintenance and closure of TSFs. Section 5
offers some concluding thoughts. An epilogue
ings some aspects
of the story up to date.
2. Research method
This research is qualitative and, in a sense, forensic. It is based
on a review of published and unpublished documents related to
the specific cases and to the engineering of TSFs in general. These
documents include technical post mortems of the two failed TSFs.
Other information was gathered from co
espondence with and
conference presentations of practicing engineers with many dec-
ades of experience in the construction and maintenance of TSFs.
Information was also gathered from company websites, govern-
ment websites and newspaper accounts.
I have only been able to make one site visit. This was to the
McLaughlin mine where I was guided by the former environ-
mental manager and the cu
ent manager of the
Answered Same DayMay 25, 2021BUACC3706


Sanya answered on May 30 2021
64 Votes
Table of Contents
The environmental incidents in developing country and corporate environmental disclosures (Islam, 2011)    2
Corporate Social Responsibility and the parameters of dialogue with vulnerable others (Robyn Mayes, 2012)    3
Corporate Social Responsibilities: Alternative Perspectives about the need to legislate (Craig Diggan, 2014)    3
Corporate accountability in the Samarco chemical sludge disaster (Costa, 2017)    4
Environmentally sustainable mining: The case of tailings storage facilities (Schoenberger, 2016)    5
Using sustainability reporting to assess the environmental footprint of copper mining (S. Northey, 2013)    5
Rio Tinto Sustainability Report 2017 Critical Discussion (Rio Tinto, 2017)    6
References    8
The environmental incidents in developing country and corporate environmental disclosures (Islam, 2011)
The author in the paper tries to draw a co
elation between the environmental incidents in a country and the companies’ social and environmental disclosure strategies by taking the case of Bangladesh’s company Niko and proposes that there is causation effect where the former leads to the latter. The theory has been proposed by analysing media publications over a 3-year period in respect of 2 blowouts in a particular year. The author also supplements his research with past literature and research on this which suggests a causation effect of media attention and public pressure on environmental disclosure strategies of a company. He uses annual reports and financial disclosures over the target 3 year period to study the effect of media attention with the argument that the time lag doesn’t have to be a longer span than 3 years to understand the co
The author suggests that the research establishes a link between the disclosure initiatives and the paper clearly explains the methodology and material facts and evidences that help him strengthen this perspective. During the study they found a standalone report released by Niko to the local communities to address the issue even though they did not find any substantial disclosures in the annual report other than the financial implications as per the regulatory needs. The text is simple and easy to understand, the document has been structured well to understand the flow and thought process of the author.
In my opinion, the scope of the study is very na
ow and the sample size is very small to apply or extrapolate the theory in other cases. There are various factors that affect company’s disclosure strategies which haven’t been explicitly called out although the author mentions legal considerations and regulatory requirements affecting financial disclosures. Also, the reaction of the peers or competitors and industry bodies can influence actions taken by the company. There could be differences in countries in terms of reaction to a particular incident and the way media functions or the role it plays in different regions. These haven’t been studied or mentioned in the research. The evidence is not extremely persuasive but the shortcomings and limitations of the evidence have been acknowledged by the author. The conclusions are hence limited.
Corporate Social Responsibility and the parameters of dialogue with vulnerable others (Robyn Mayes, 2012)
The author in the study establishes the importance of dialogue with the vulnerable in fulfilling corporate social responsibilities of corporates with a case in point of closure of Nickel mine in Western Australia. For the purpose of establishing the validity of the argument, the study uses primary research tool interview to understand the perception of the stakeholders.
The author has defined the scope very clearly and comprehensively and eliminated subjective biases by laying out the interpretations of ‘vulnerable’, ‘dialogue’ ‘corporate communications and engagement’ etc. Although the anecdotes from the interviews have been sparsely mentioned, the prominence of certain aspects such as social responsibility, morals, accountability in the conversation has been specified to give the essence of the perceptions of interviewees. The selective sample size is good to a
ive at a general perception of the target community and helps substantiate the point the author is trying to make. The study contributes in creation of frameworks for corporate engagements and social responsibilities towards stakeholders and hence is useful.
Although semi-structured interview is a great tool for research to understand things at a grassroots level and get first-hand information, the flow of the interview is not devoid of bias of the interviewer which is a potential limitation of the study. The study considers one particular incident and repercussions of it on a particular section of stakeholders and hence limited in scope. Further, the author tries to push a shift in authority to enter into a dialogue from corporations to external enforcement bodies which may be a bit over-stretched goal. At the same time, the study is reliable in establishing guidance principles for corporate engagement with the vulnerable and frameworks for CSR activities.
Corporate Social Responsibilities: Alternative Perspectives about the need to legislate (Craig Diggan, 2014)
The research tries to review alternative positions on a widely-debated subject with greatly opposing views on having a flexible approach to Corporate Social Responsibility by making...

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