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Question 1: 300 words

By now you are adept at calculating averages and intuitively can estimate whether something is “normal” (a measurement not too far from average) or unusual (pretty far from the average you might expect). This class helps to quantify exactly how far something you measure is from average using the normal distribution. Basically, you mark the mean down the middle of the bell curve, calculate the standard deviation of your sample and then add (or subtract) that value to come up with the mile markers (z scores) that measure the distance from the mean.

For example, if the average height of adult males in the United States is 69 inches with a standard deviation of 3 inches, we could create the graph below.

Men who are somewhere between 63 and 75 inches tall would be considered of a fairly normal height. Men shorter than 63” or taller than 75” would be considered unusual (assuming our sample data represents the actual population). You could use a z score to look up exactly what percentage of men are shorter than (or taller than) a particular height.

Think of something in your work or personal life that you measure regularly (No actual calculation of the mean, standard deviation or z scores is necessary). What value is “average”? What values would you consider to be unusually high or unusually low? If a value were unusually high or low—how would it change your response to the measurement?

Question 2: 300 words

Two or more samples are often compared when we suspect that there are differences between the groups—for example, are cancer rates higher in one town than another, or are test scores higher in one class than another? In your chosen field, when might you want to know the mean differences between two or more groups? Please describe the situation (what groups, what measurements) including how and why it would be used.

Question 3: 325 words

One goal of statistics is to identify relations among variables. What happens to one variable as another variable changes? Does a change in one variable cause a change in another variable? These questions can lead to powerful methods of predicting future values through linear regression.

It is important to note the true meaning and scope of co

elation, which is the nature of the relation between two variables. Co

elation does not allow to say that there is any causal link between the two variables. In other words, we cannot say that one variable causes another; however, it is not uncommon to see such use in the news media. An example is shown below.

Here we see that, at least visually, there appears to be a relation between the divorce rate in Maine and the per capital consumption of margarine. Does this imply that all ma

ied couples in Maine should immediately stop using margarine in order to stave off divorce? Common sense tells us that is probably not true.

This is an example of a spurious co

elation in which there appears to be a relation between the divorce rate and margarine consumption but, it is not a causal link. The appearance of such a relation could merely be due to coincidence or perhaps another unseen factor.

What is one instance where you have seen co

elation misinterpreted as causation? Please describe.

Answered Same DayApr 02, 2022

Solution 1:

In this solution we are explaining the basic difference between usual or unusual measurements. This concept can be best explained by normal distribution Z-Score. Let us consider the given example as follows:

An employee works in a XYZ company and the average expenditure of the employee is $50 per day with a standard deviation of $15. The data is taken of 3 months of expenditure and the distribution follows normal distribution. The normal distribution graph is given as follows:

The central value is the mean $50 and distribution has standard deviation of $15. There are two concepts about the unusual values. That is a value is considered as unusual if the value is out of

2 standard deviations and in some situations a value is considered as unusual if it is out of 3 standard deviations.

Now, in the above situation the employee has a small party at his home and his expense for that particular day is $100. Now, lets calculate the Z score for the given value.

Z Score =

Thus, the value is above then the 3 standard deviation from the mean. Hence, that value is considered as unusual value. Now, if the value comes unusual then we can say that that value comes very rarely. There are very less chances of occu

ence of that value. If we take the normal standard table to calculate the probability of the value calculated above then it comes to be 0.0013.

Hence, we can say that the chances that a value to be comes out as an unusual value is 0.13% which is very low. In some concepts a value above or below 2 standard deviation is considered as unusual but the best approach is to use 3.

Solution 2:

There are some situations when we are interested in comparing the two or more samples. We are suspected that there is a difference in the means of the respective groups or samples. When there is a need to compare two groups, t-test or z-test are implemented and when the groups are more than 2...

In this solution we are explaining the basic difference between usual or unusual measurements. This concept can be best explained by normal distribution Z-Score. Let us consider the given example as follows:

An employee works in a XYZ company and the average expenditure of the employee is $50 per day with a standard deviation of $15. The data is taken of 3 months of expenditure and the distribution follows normal distribution. The normal distribution graph is given as follows:

The central value is the mean $50 and distribution has standard deviation of $15. There are two concepts about the unusual values. That is a value is considered as unusual if the value is out of

2 standard deviations and in some situations a value is considered as unusual if it is out of 3 standard deviations.

Now, in the above situation the employee has a small party at his home and his expense for that particular day is $100. Now, lets calculate the Z score for the given value.

Z Score =

Thus, the value is above then the 3 standard deviation from the mean. Hence, that value is considered as unusual value. Now, if the value comes unusual then we can say that that value comes very rarely. There are very less chances of occu

ence of that value. If we take the normal standard table to calculate the probability of the value calculated above then it comes to be 0.0013.

Hence, we can say that the chances that a value to be comes out as an unusual value is 0.13% which is very low. In some concepts a value above or below 2 standard deviation is considered as unusual but the best approach is to use 3.

Solution 2:

There are some situations when we are interested in comparing the two or more samples. We are suspected that there is a difference in the means of the respective groups or samples. When there is a need to compare two groups, t-test or z-test are implemented and when the groups are more than 2...

SOLUTION.PDF## Answer To This Question Is Available To Download

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