Research Methods for Business EXERCISE 15.10 Tables 15.A to 15.D below summarize the results of data analyses of research conducted in a sales organiza- tion that operates in 50 different cities of...

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Research Methods for Business
EXERCISE 15.10
Tables 15.A to 15.D below summarize the results of data analyses of research conducted in a sales organiza-
tion that operates in 50 different cities of the country and employs a total sales force of about 500. The
number of salespersons sampled for the study was 150.
a. Interpret the information contained in each of the tables in as much detail as possible.
b. Summarize the results for the CEO of the company.
c. Make recommendations based on your interpretation of the results.
T A B L E XXXXXXXXXXA
Means, standard deviations, minimum, and maximum
Variable Mean Std. deviation Minimum Maximum
Sales (in 1000s of $ XXXXXXXXXX
No of salespersons XXXXXXXXXX
Population (in 100s XXXXXXXXXX
Per capita income (in 1000s of $ XXXXXXXXXX9
Advertising (in 1000s of $ XXXXXXXXXX
T A B L E XXXXXXXXXXB
Correlations among the variables
Sales Salespersons Population Income Ad. expenditure
Sales 1.0
No. of salespersons XXXXXXXXXX
Population XXXXXXXXXX
Income XXXXXXXXXX
Ad. expenditure XXXXXXXXXX 1.0
 All figures above 0.15 are significant at p .
 All figures above 0.35 are significant at p
T A B L E XXXXXXXXXXC
Results of one-way ANOVA: sales by level of education
Source of variation Sums of squares df Mean squares F Significance of F
Between groups XXXXXXXXXX.01
Within groups XXXXXXXXXX
Total XXXXXXXXXX
330    
T A B L E XXXXXXXXXXD
Results of regression analysis
Multiple R XXXXXXXXXX
R‐square XXXXXXXXXX
Adjusted R‐square XXXXXXXXXX
Standard error XXXXXXXXXX
df (5.144)
F 5.278
Sig. 0.000
Variable Beta t Sig. t
Training of salespersons XXXXXXXXXX
No. of salespersons XXXXXXXXXX
Population XXXXXXXXXX
Per capita income XXXXXXXXXX
Advertisement XXXXXXXXXX
EXERCISE 15.11
Visit David Kenny’s website (http://davidakenny.net/cm/mediate.htm) and search for a link to SPSS and
SAS macros that can be downloaded for tests of indirect effects.
    :   331
Contents
About The Authors
Preface
1 Learning Objectives
Business Research
The Role Of Theory And Information In Research
Research And The Manager
Applied Research
Basic Or Fundamental Research
Why Managers Need To Know About Research
The Manager And The Consultant–researcher
Internal Consultants/researchers
External Consultants/researchers
2 Learning Objectives
Purposiveness
Rigor
Testability
Replicability
Precision And Confidence
Objectivity
Generalizability
Parsimony
The Seven-step Process In The Hypothetico-deductive Method
Review Of The Hypothetico-deductive Method
Some Obstacles To Conducting Scientific Research In The Management Area
Positivism
Constructionism
Critical Realism
Pragmatism
Conclusion
3 Learning Objectives
Nature Of Information To Be Gathered
What Makes A Good Problem Statement?
Basic Types Of Questions: Exploratory And Descriptive
4 Learning Objectives
Data Sources
Searching For Literature
Evaluating The Literature
Documenting The Literature Review
Appen D I X
Online Databases
On The Web
Accounting
Management
Financial Economics
Marketing
Specimen Format For Citing Different Types Of References (apa Format)
Referencing Non-print Media
Quotations In Text
5 Learning Objectives
Dependent Variable
Independent Variable
Moderating Variable
Mediating Variable
The Components Of The Theoretical Framework
Definition Of A Hypothesis
Statement Of Hypotheses: Formats
Directional And Nondirectional Hypotheses
Null And Alternate Hypotheses
6 Learning Objectives
Research Strategies
Extent Of Researcher Interference With The Study
Study Setting: Contrived And Noncontrived
Unit Of Analysis: Individuals, Dyads, Groups, Organizations, Cultures
Time Horizon: Cross-sectional Versus Longitudinal Studies
7 Learning Objectives
Unstructured And Structured Interviews
Training Interviewers
Some Tips To Follow When Interviewing
Face-to-face And Telephone Interviews
Additional Sources Of Bias In Interview Data
Computer-assisted Interviewing
Group Interviews
8 Learning Objectives
Controlled Versus Uncontrolled Observational Studies
Participant Versus Nonparticipant Observation
Structured Versus Unstructured Observational Studies
Concealed Versus Unconcealed Observation
Participant Observation: Introduction
The Participatory Aspect Of Participant Observation
The Observation Aspect Of Participant Observation
What To Observe
Structured Observation: Introduction
The Use Of Coding Schemes In Structured Observation
9 Learning Objectives
Personally Administered Questionnaires
Mail Questionnaires
Electronic And Online Questionnaires
Principles Of Wording
Principles Of Measurement
Review Of Questionnaire Design
Pretesting Of Structured Questions
Electronic Questionnaire And Survey Design
Special Issues In Instrumentation For Cross-cultural Research
Issues In Cross-cultural Data Collection
Ethics And The Researcher
Ethical Behavior Of Respondents
10 Learning Objectives
Control
Manipulation
Controlling The Contaminating Exogenous Or “nuisance” Variables
Internal Validity Of Lab Experiments
External Validity Or Generalizability Of Lab Experiments
Trade-off Between Internal And External Validity
Factors Affecting The Validity Of Experiments
Identifying Threats To Validity
Review Of Factors Affecting Internal And External Validity
Quasi-experimental Designs
True Experimental Designs
Ex Post Facto Designs
Appen D I X
The Completely Randomized Design
Randomized Block Design
Latin Square Design
Factorial Design
11 Learning Objectives
Operationalization: Dimensions And Elements
Operationalizing The (multidimensional) Concept Of Achievement Motivation
What Operationalization Is Not
Review Of Operationalization
12 Learning Objectives
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Interval Scale
Ratio Scale
Ordinal Or Interval?
Review Of Scales
Dichotomous Scale
Category Scale
Semantic Differential Scale
Numerical Scale
Itemized Rating Scale
Likert Scale
Fixed Or Constant Sum Scale
Stapel Scale
Graphic Rating Scale
Consensus Scale
Other Scales
Paired Comparison
Forced Choice
Comparative Scale
Item Analysis
Validity
Reliability
What Is A Reflective Scale?
What Is A Formative Scale And Why Do The Items Of A Formative Scale Not Necessarily Hang Together?
Appen D I X
Measures From Behavioral Finance Research
Measures From Management Accounting Research
Measures From Management Research
Measures From Marketing Research
13 Learning Objectives
Population
Element
Sample
Sampling Unit
Subject
Parameters
Representativeness Of Samples
Normality Of Distributions
Defining The Population
Determining The Sample Frame
Determining The Sampling Design
Determining The Sample Size
Executing The Sampling Process
Unrestricted Or Simple Random Sampling
Restricted Or Complex Probability Sampling
Review Of Probability Sampling Designs
Convenience Sampling
Purposive Sampling
Review Of Nonprobability Sampling Designs
Simple Random Sampling
Stratified Random Sampling
Systematic Sampling
Area Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Convenience Sampling
Double Sampling
Judgment Sampling: One Type Of Purposive Sampling
Quota Sampling: A Second Type Of Purposive Sampling
Precision
Confidence
Sample Data, Precision, And Confidence In Estimation
Trade-off Between Confidence And Precision
Determining The Sample Size
Sample Size And Type Ii Errors
Statistical And Practical Significance
Rules Of Thumb
Efficiency In Sampling
14 Quantitative data analysis
Learning Objectives
Coding And Data Entry
Editing Data
Data Transformation
Frequencies
Measures Of Central Tendency And Dispersion
Relationships Between Variables
Reliability
Validity
15 Learning Objectives
Testing A Hypothesis About A Single Mean
Testing Hypotheses About Two Related Means
Testing Hypotheses About Two Unrelated Means
Testing Hypotheses About Several Means
Regression Analysis
Other Multivariate Tests And Analyses
Overall Interpretation And Recommendations To The President
16 Learning Objectives
Data Reduction
Data Display
Drawing Conclusions
Content Analysis
Narrative Analysis
Analytic Induction
17 Learning Objectives
The Purpose Of The Written Report
The Audience For The Written Report
Characteristics Of A Well-written Report
The Title And The Title Page
The Executive Summary Or Abstract
Table Of Contents
List Of Tables, Figures, And Other Materials
Preface
The Authorization Letter
The Introductory Section
The Body Of The Report
The Final Part Of The Report
References
Appendix
Deciding On The Content
Visual Aids
The Presenter
The Presentation
Handling Questions
Appen D I X
Report For The Strategic Planning Committee
Report On Alternative Ways Of Handling Recessionary Times Without Massive Layoffs
Factors Affecting The Upward Mobility Of Women In Public Accounting
A Final Note To Students
Statistical Tables
Glossary
Bibliography
Index
Answered 6 days AfterMay 09, 2021

Solution

Parvesh Kumar answered on May 16 2021
27 Votes

a)
From table 15.A
The average amount of sales in 50 cities is 75.1 thousand dollars, with lowest being 45.2 and maximum sale is 97.3 thousand dollars. The average number of salespersons per...

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