Creating virtual machines. Dr. Danish Khan Jan 2021 Lab objectives Create three virtual machines; Windows Server 2016, Windows 10 and Kali Linux and verify connectivity between them. Background A...

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Creating virtual machines.
Dr. Danish Khan
Jan 2021
Lab objectives
Create three virtual machines; Windows Server 2016, Windows 10 and Kali Linux and verify connectivity between them.
Background
A virtual machine is a software computer that, like a physical machine, runs an operating system and applications. A virtual machine uses the physical resources of the physical machine on which it runs, which is called the host system. Virtual machines have virtual devices that provide the same functionality as physical hardware, but with the additional benefits of portability, manageability, and security. A virtual machine has an operating system and virtual resources that you manage in much the same way that you manage a physical computer. For example, you install an operating system in a virtual machine in the same way that you install an operating system on a physical computer. You must have a CD-ROM, DVD, or ISO image that contains the installation files from an operating system vendor. This paragraph is taken from the VMware documents website (VMware, 2019) and for interested readers I have included the link under the heading ‘works cited’. Virtual machines are great to provide an isolated environment to test a software, OS patch before deploying into production environment or test a vulnerability in the system without affecting live systems or a host operating system.
Prerequisites
None
Required resources
The lab instructions in this lab are written and tested based on VMware products. Due to a license agreement between the college and VMware, I will be using VMware products. You can download required resources from the Computer Security website. You need the following resources:
· Kali Linux VMware 64-bit image
· Windows Server 2016 ISO image
· VMware workstation player for Windows or VMfusion player for MAC
Note 1: You do not have to use VMware products and I am not advertising VMware products here. You are free to use any other available products and this does not affect your answers you have to provide in the reflection part at the end of the lab. However the lab instructions, video and/or screenshots may not match.
Watch the video available at the Computer Security website and then perform the reflection part of the lab.
Reflection
a. Verify that the IP address of all the virtual machines belongs to the same subnet. Use a logical method to prove this.
. Why does the ping response fail from Kali to Windows Server 2016, but the ping works in another direction? How do you make the ping works?
End of lab configurations
None

Microsoft Word - Cryptograhic hash functions.docx
Cryptographic
hash functions.
Danish Khan
Dec 2019
Cryptographic hash functions.
Page 1 of 5
Table of Contents
OBJECTIVES ....................................................................................................................................... XXXXXXXXXX2
BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................... XXXXXXXXXX2
PREREQUISITES ................................................................................................................................. XXXXXXXXXX4
REQUIRED RESOURCES ...................................................................................................................... XXXXXXXXXX4
COMPARE HASH VALUES OF A DOWNLOADED FILE ........................................................................... XXXXXXXXXX4
REFLECTION ...................................................................................................................................... XXXXXXXXXX5

Cryptographic hash functions.
Page 2 of 5
Cryptographic hash functions
Approximate time to finish: 60 min
Objectives
Understand the application of cryptographic hash functions (SHA-2-512)
Background
A hash function is used to check data integrity. Hash does not encrypt data, nor it requires a key.
Hash is a representation of data which is also called message digest. A hash function produces
a fixed-length output against the variable length block of data as input and the hash output is
always same if the data is not changed assuming that the same algorithm is used when calculating
the hash. A hash function can be defined as:
ℎ = ?(?)
where h is a hash value (fixed size), M is a message of variable size and H is the hash function.
The message could vary in length, but the hash function applies to the fixed length message
lock.
Figure 1 Cryptographic hash function
E
or! Reference source not found. shows the process involving in generating a hash value.
The variable message is padded so that the length is congruent to 896 modulo 1024. The length
of padding is in the range XXXXXXXXXXbits and consists of a single 1 bit followed by the necessary
number of 0 bits. Length field is a block of 128 bits appended to the message which contains the
length of the original message before the padding. For example, the message in ASCII characters
‘abc’ has the following equivalent 24-bit binary
XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX
The above message is padded to a length congruent to 896 modulo 1024. The padding consists
of 896-24=872 bits. Out of 872 padding bits, the first bit will be ‘1’ following by “0s”. The length
will be 24 bits since the original message length is 24 bits (without the padding). Following will be
the 1024-bit message in hexadecimal format.
Cryptographic hash functions.
Page 3 of 5
XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX
Remember each hexadecimal is represented by 4 bits. In the above example, each block has 16
hexadecimal or 64 bits (16x4). The message in hexadecimal is XXXXXXXXXXThe padding in
hexadecimal is 80000 up to 872 bit shown in bold face (896th bit position when counting the
message). The length is the last two blocks (16x2 hexadecimal or 64x2 bits).
Requirements for cryptographic hash functions

Requirements Description
Variable input size H can be applied to a block of data of any
size
Fixed output size H produces a fixed-length output
Efficiency H(x) is relatively easy to compute for any
given x making both hardware and software
implementations practical
Preimage resistant (one-way property) For any given hash value h, it is
computationally infeasible to find y such that
H(y) = h.
Second preimage resistant (weak collision
esistant)
For any given block x, it is computationally
infeasible to find ? ≠ ? with H(y) = H(x)
Collision resistant (strong collision resistant) It is computationally infeasible to find any pair
(x, y) such that H(x) = H(y)
Pseudorandomness Output of H meets standard tests for
pseudorandomness
Cryptographic hash functions.
Page 4 of 5
Prerequisites
• How to create virtual machines
Required resources
The lab can be done in either VM or non-VM environment.
• Windows 10 OS or a virtual machine
Answered 8 days AfterApr 08, 2022

Solution

Jahir Abbas answered on Apr 13 2022
14 Votes
LAB 2D
SOLUTION.PDF

Answer To This Question Is Available To Download

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