SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING ​ The Production of Instant Coffee: Freeze vs. Spray Drying Group 4 23 April, 2020 Daniel Lester Tutor: Dr Srini Mettu Zofia Andrianopoulos s3728453 Neha Khairajani s3720116...

This is group research, I only want to complete sections 3.4 & 3.5 from the whole report, please check the files you will see the instructions , suggestions on writing these two sections ( Sizing & cost and process improvment) also please check rubric file to see Requirements of having good marks. Harvard reference style, also in-text citation needed.

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING ​ The Production of Instant Coffee: Freeze vs. Spray Drying Group 4 23 April, 2020 Daniel Lester Tutor: Dr Srini Mettu Zofia Andrianopoulos s3728453 Neha Khairajani s3720116 Steven Kalpakas s3485541 Shaas AL Najjar s3639735 Summary Instant coffee, also known as coffee powder, is the concentrated product of roasted, crushed and then dried coffee beans. The process in which these beans are dried can greatly impact factors such as the size, texture, aroma, and flavour of the coffee. It is thereby important to understand and implement the most appropriate drying method in order to increase the overall quality. This quality should not compromise the sustainability of the process, the quantity of coffee produced and subsequent revenue, but should still appeal to the general public. This causes a delicate balance between the quantity and quality of production. The main objective here is to design an instant coffee production facility in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, that produces 5100 tonnes of dried instant coffee per annum. After exploring the advantages and disadvantages of spray drying, freeze dying and a third option of combining the two methods into a spray-freeze drying step, the most appropriate method will be chosen to implement in the production plant. The final method will be chosen based on product quality, ability to meet production needs as well as the relevant economic, social and environmental sustainability factors. With this report, all three methods were reviewed to better understand the requirements and consequences. It was found that spray drying was cheaper to implement and required simpler equipment. It was recognised as one of the most popular methods, with few by-products thereby making it an efficient method. Whilst these features seem ideal, the product ultimately lacked natural aroma and flavour as a result of desensitised process methods. In contrast, freeze drying required higher energy consumptions, with more complex equipment operating at very specific temperatures and pressures. The result of this however was a higher quality product. A third method known as spray-freeze drying; a combination of spray and freeze drying methods was reviewed. Whilst literature was unclear of the applications within instant coffee production, it has been extensively used for other powdered products which resemble the ideal characteristics intended for coffee production. However, this method was not chosen as there was little information for their direct applications in the coffee production industry. Although spray drying seems ideal for large scale production, the production plant we attempt to develop is on a smaller scale based on production of instant coffee per annum. Therefore, freeze drying was chosen as the desired method in order to develop high quality instant coffee despite its high energy consumption, with an aim to find alternative energy sources to implement within daily plant operations. This choice may not be ideal for larger scale production plants as it would require an extremely high energy consumption, and increased costs in many stages of plant development and operation. 2 Table of Contents Summary 2 Introduction 6 Literature Review 7 2.1 - Spray Drying 7 2.2 - Freeze Drying 8 2.3 - Spray-Freeze Drying 10 Results 12 3.1 - The Best Process 12 3.2 Process Description 14 3.3 - Mass Balance 16 3.3.1 - Mass balance around the sieve 16 3.3.2 - Mass balance around the mixer and freeze dryer 17 3.3.3 - Mass balance around the filter and decanter centrifuge. 18 3.3.4 - Mass balance around the extractor 19 3.3.5 - Mass balance around the entire system 20 References 22 Appendices 26 Appendix 1 – Concept Map 26 Appendix 2 – GEMI worksheet 1a 27 Appendix 3 – GEMI worksheet 1b 28 Appendix 4 – GEMI worksheet 2a 29 Appendix 5 – GEMI worksheet 2b 30 Appendix 6 – Process Flow Diagram (basic) 31 3 List of Tables Table 1 - Economic, environmental, and social impacts of material issues. 12 Table 2 - Analysis of key objectives and KPI's of material issues 13 Table 3 - Sieve mass flow rates and mass fractions at <0.5mm and="">0.5mm 17 Table 4 - Mixer and freeze drier mass flow rates and compositions 18 Table 5 - Filter and centrifuge mass flow rates and compositions 19 Table 6 - Extractor mass flow rates and composition 20 Table 7 - Process mass flow rates and composition 21 4 List of Figures Figure 1 - Process flow diagram of the spray drying process (Anandharamakrishnan, C 2019) 7 Figure 2 - Instant freeze dried coffee - resebles granules of ground coffee (MyCuppa) 8 Figure 3 - Phase diagram of water highlighting the triple point and sublimation information (Phase diagram, 2020) 9 Figure 4 - PCA plot for (A)-instant coffee, (B)-Spray dried, (C)-Freeze dried, (D)-Spray-Freeze dried (Ishwarva et al, 2019) 10 Figure 5 - Electron microscope images of coffee powder produced using SFD, SD and FD techniques respectively (Ishwarva et al, 2019) 11 Figure 6 - Process Flow Diagram of the recommended process 14 Figure 7 - Mass balance diagram around the sieve 16 Figure 8 - Mass balance diagram of the mixer and the freeze dryer 17 Figure 9 - Mass balance diagram of filter and decanter centrifuge 18 Figure 10 - Mass balance diagram of the extractor 19 Figure 11 - Mass balance diagram of entire process 20 5 Introduction The spread of coffee around the world can be traced back to Ethiopia where legend says that a goat herder discovered the wild plant after noticing that his goats refused to sleep after eating its berries. The potential of this discovery could not be ignored and spread right through the Arabian world like wildfire. Now people could be more productive and alert during all hours of the day. While the earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking is dated to the middle of the 15​th century (Murray, 2002), the invention of instant coffee is credited to the Frenchman, Alphonse Allais in 1881. Since then the use of instant coffee has grown such that around 50% of green coffee, globally, is used to produce instant coffee (Ramalakshmi, Rao, Takano-Ishikawa and Goto, 2009). Instant coffee has cemented itself into cultures around the world and shows no signs of going away in the foreseeable future. As such, recent market projections show that the global revenue from instant coffee production will only increase over time. It is also apparent that Japan, with a projected market volume of US$28,462m in 2020 (Instant Coffee - worldwide | Statista Market Forecast, 2020), is the global leading generator of revenue for the industry. Of the other four countries that make up the top five revenue generators; three are in the Asia-Pacific region. This shows that the demand for instant coffee in this area is extremely high, justifying the concept of creating a new instant coffee production
May 10, 2021PROC2078

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