Tiffany Frank TuesdayMay 4 at 9:56am Manage Discussion Entry The concept of life-long learning has taken on a new meaning as the world of knowledge and technology changes at an exponential rate....

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Tiffany Frank

TuesdayMay 4 at 9:56amManage Discussion Entry

The concept of life-long learning has taken on a new meaning as the world of knowledge and technology changes at an
exponential rate. Adults have a choice to either keep up with the changes by improving their knowledge and skills or stagnate in their learning and become obsolete (Billington, XXXXXXXXXXThis has created the need for a deeper understanding of how adultslearn, how this learning can be facilitated, and how this process compares to what is known about how children learn. The learner, be it a child or an adult comes to the learning process with life experiences and prior knowledge that
is used by the learner to make connections to the new learning. One difference is the adult learner has more life experiences
and prior knowledge than the child. In all three theories, the environment in which the learning takes place needs to be risk-freeand one in which the learner feels safe and secure and supported to engage in new learning. The occurrence of learning taking place is driven by the responsibility of the learner. It is the self-directed nature of the process, as described by all three theories that determine what will be learned. There appears to be a difference in the responsibility and self-directedness between the adult learner and a child. The adult appears to have an awareness of the self-directed nature of the process and makes conscious decisions regarding the learning by formulation of learning goals. The child appears to unconsciously determine what is next in the natural process of learning based on the current skill, strategy, or knowledge that is a need in the next step of the process. This is also determined by what is being learned-language, reading, writing, walking, running, etc.


Billington, D XXXXXXXXXXSeven characteristics of adult education/adult learning.

Jessica Bowers

TuesdayMay 4 at 3:08pmManage Discussion Entry

Andragogy, which is the study of how adults learn and is contrasted with pedagogy, which is the study of how children learn, was developed by Malcom Knowles and creates five assumptions that differentiate adult learners from child learners (Knowles et al, XXXXXXXXXXThese five assumptions include self-directed learning that draws an extensive repertoire of experience and is focused on acquiring task-specific knowledge when it is applicable in a way that is intrinsically motivating (Knowles et al, 1984).

To take advantage of adult learning theory, adult classes should be designed with autonomy to choose the style of learning, the type of assessment, and the goals related to the learning experience. Adult learning should also be designed to be integrated into the flow of work such that it does not interfere with work, but can be applied as soon as a problem or a task presents the need for additional knowledge (Illeris, XXXXXXXXXXLearning that occurs within the informal flow of work allows the adult to access learning when it is most valuable and promotes the intrinsic nature of learning.


Illeris, K XXXXXXXXXXA Model for Learning in Working Life.Journal of Workplace Learning, 16, XXXXXXXXXX.

Knowles, M. S., and Assoc. Andragogy in Action: Applying Modern Principles of Adult Learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1984

Answered 4 days AfterMay 06, 2021


Anurag Pathak answered on May 07 2021
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