# I need help with a simulation exercises and question on evolution. In the dog domestication exercises, you will compare DNA sequences of wolves and construct phylogenetic trees. Then you will simulate...

I need help with a simulation exercises and question on evolution. In the dog domestication exercises, you will compare DNA sequences of wolves and construct phylogenetic trees. Then you will simulate events that led to the domestication of dogs.

Answered 2 days AfterMar 15, 2024

## Answer To: I need help with a simulation exercises and question on evolution. In the dog domestication...

Dr Shweta answered on Mar 18 2024
Exercise 1: Wolves and the Valley
Reference sequence: Sequence of 100 nucleotides of FIRST WOLF of Pack A:
ATTATATAAAGTTTACTGCCAGGTTAATCCGAACGGAATCCGCAGACGGCCAAAAGACGACCCATAGGCAGTTG
ATTTGCCCAGTCTGCGGAGTTCGATA
Solution of 5.1:
Yes, the nucleotide sequence of two wolfs a
re different at two positions: position 30 where first one has G and second has A and at position 79 where first one has C and second one has T.
Solution of 6.1:
Yes, the nucleotide sequence of first wolfs of pack B is different from wolf of pack A at 15 positions
Solution of 7.1 and 7.2
7.1: Yes, the nucleotide sequence of second wolfs of pack B is different from wolf of pack A at 15 positions.
7.2: But there is no difference in the nucleotide sequence of first and second wolfs of pack B
8.1 Difference in physical appearance:
The colour and size of the 4 wolves are different: white 118, yellow:110, black: 58, brown: 70
Exercise 2: Evolution by Genetic Drift
4.1 There are 2 differences found between the wolves 200 generations apart
5,1 Difference after 400 generations: 12
Difference after 600 generations: 13
Difference after 800 generations: 15
9.1 Mutation invoked:
Mutation from T to A
Index position: 16
Generation: 147
12.1 The mutation disappears after 3 generations
13.1 When this process repeated 3-4 times, every time the mutation disappears after 2-3 generations.
13.2 Random mutations become more likely to be disappear.
14.1 When inferring evolutionary relationships between dogs, it is preferable to choose a neutral sequence since it offers a more precise depiction of evolution, in contrast to sequences impacted by selection that may be modified by selective influences.
Exercise 3: Population divergence:
1.1 plot of genetic distance vs, time
1.2 The linear shape of the plot shows that genetic differences increases over time.
8.1 shape of plot: linear
8.2 As per this shape, genetic distance increases over time
8.3 Yes, it matches with my prediction of question 1.1 and 1.2.
8.4 There are 27 differences between the sequences sampled from two populations, and from the plot it is believed that these populations have been diverging from 500 generations
Exercise 4: Reconstruct a tree
3.1 Arch to black forest at generation 97
5.1 Arch to cloud forest at generation 404
6.1 Arch to deep forest at generation 719
8.1 Differences between Arch and Black: _____29___
Differences between Arch and Cloud: __34______
Differences between Arch and Deep: ____16____
9.1 Differences between Black and Cloud: _28_______
Differences between Black and Deep: _25_______
10.1 Differences between Cloud and Deep: ____36____
11.1 Arch and deep forest populations are most closely related, due to less differences in their
DNA...
SOLUTION.PDF