In a very general sense chapters, four and five examine crime and criminality from a more individual perspective. Chapter six focuses outside the individual, specifically the individual's economic...

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In a very general sense chapters, four and five examine crime and criminality from a more individual perspective. Chapter six focuses outside the individual, specifically the individual's economic reality.


As a way to understand this perspective . In bullet/outline format, summarize each of the branches (1. social disorganization, 2. strain theory, and 3. cultural deviance theory)within this social structure perspective. Make sure to summarize, don't over-explain. You can include direct quotes from the text or paraphrased material, including key terms or theorists when applicable. This assignment should not be longer than 2 pages, think about half-page or so for each perspective.

I attach the book in the file from chapter 4-6 but mostly from 6 for this assignment

9781439065785.pdf TENTH EDITION CRIMINOLOGY THEORIES, PATTERNS, AND TYPOLOGIES Larry J. Siegel University of Massachusetts, Lowell Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States © 2010, 2007 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Control Number: 2008932091 Student Edition: ISBN-13: 978-0-495-60031-2 ISBN-10: 0-495-60031-8 Loose-Leaf Edition: ISBN-13: 978-0-495-60030-5 ISBN-10: 0-495-60030-X Wadsworth 10 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with offi ce locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local offi ce at Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. To learn more about Wadsworth, visit Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies, Tenth Edition Larry J. Siegel Senior Acquisitions Editor, Criminal Justice: Carolyn Henderson Meier Development Editor: Shelley Murphy Assistant Editor: Meaghan Banks Editorial Assistant: John Chell Technology Project Manager: Bessie Weiss Marketing Manager: Michelle Williams Marketing Assistant: Jillian Myers Marketing Communications Manager: Tami Strang Project Manager, Editorial Production: Jennie Redwitz Creative Director: Rob Hugel Art Director: Maria Epes Print Buyer: Becky Cross Permissions Editor: Bobbie Broyer Production Service: Linda Jupiter Productions Text Designer: Tani Hasegawa Photo Researcher: Linda Rill Copy Editor: Lunaea Weatherstone Proofreader: Debra Gates Indexer: Medea Minnich Illustrator: Scientifi c Illustrators Cover Designer: Yvo Riezebos, Riezebos Holzbaur Design Group Cover Image: Naoki Okamoto/SuperStock Compositor: International Typesetting and Composition For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to [email protected]. Printed in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08 This book is dedicated to my kids, Eric, Andrew, Julie, and Rachel, and to my grandkids, Jack, Kayla, and Brooke. It is also dedicated to Jason Macy (thanks for marrying Rachel) and Therese J. Libby (thanks for marrying me). ABOUT THE AUTHOR Larry J. Siegel was born in the Bronx in 1947. While living on Jerome Avenue and attending City College of New York in the 1960s, he was swept up in the social and political currents of the time. He became intrigued with the infl uence contemporary culture had on individual behavior: Did people shape society or did society shape people? He applied his interest in social forces and human behavior to the study of crime and justice. After graduating CCNY, he attended the newly opened program in criminal justice at the State University of New York at Albany, earning both his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees there. After completing his graduate work, Dr. Siegel began his teaching career at North- eastern University, where he was a faculty member for nine years. After leaving Northeastern, he held teaching positions at the University of Nebraska–Omaha and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. He is currently a professor at the University of Massachusetts–Lowell. Dr. Siegel has written extensively in the area of crime and justice, including books on juvenile law, delinquency, criminology, criminal justice, and criminal procedure. He is a court certifi ed expert on police conduct and has testifi ed in numerous legal cases. The father of four and grandfather of three, Larry Siegel and his wife, Terry, now reside in Bedford, New Hampshire, with their two dogs, Watson and Cody. BRIEF CONTENTS PART ONE CONCEPTS OF CRIME, LAW, AND CRIMINOLOGY CHAPTER 1 Crime and Criminology 2 CHAPTER 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 28 CHAPTER 3 Victims and Victimization 68 PART TWO THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATION CHAPTER 4 Rational Choice Theory 94 CHAPTER 5 Trait Theories 128 CHAPTER 6 Social Structure Theories 176 CHAPTER 7 Social Process Theories 212 CHAPTER 8 Social Confl ict, Critical Criminology, and Restorative Justice 244 CHAPTER 9 Developmental Theories: Life Course and Latent Trait 270 PART THREE CRIME TYPOLOGIES CHAPTER 10 Interpersonal Violence 300 CHAPTER 11 Political Crime and Terrorism 334 CHAPTER 12 Property Crime 368 CHAPTER 13 Enterprise Crime: White-Collar and Organized Crime 394 CHAPTER 14 Public Order Crime: Sex and Substance Abuse 424 CHAPTER 15 Cyber Crime and Technology 466 v Crime and the Criminal Law 18 Common Law 19 Contemporary Criminal Law 19 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: The Mother of All Snakeheads 21 The Evolution of Criminal Law 21 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: The Elements of Criminal Law 22 Ethical Issues in Criminology 23 What to Study? 24 Whom to Study? 24 How to Study? 24 CHAPTER 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 28 Primary Sources of Crime Data: Record Data 30 Offi cial Record Research 30 The Uniform Crime Report 30 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: A Pain in the Glass 33 Primary Sources of Crime Data: Survey Research 34 The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 34 Self-Report Surveys 35 Evaluating the Primary Sources of Crime Data 37 Secondary Sources of Crime Data 38 Cohort Research 38 Experimental Research 38 Preface xiv PART ONE CONCEPTS OF CRIME, LAW, AND CRIMINOLOGY 1 CHAPTER 1 Crime and Criminology 2 What Is Criminology? 4 Criminology and Criminal Justice 4 Criminology and Deviance 4 A Brief History of Criminology 5 Classical Criminology 5 Nineteenth-Century Positivism 6 The Chicago School and Beyond 8 Social-Psychological Views 9 Confl ict and Crime 9 Integrating Diverse Prospectives: Developmental Criminology 10 Contemporary Criminology 10 What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise 11 Criminal Statistics and Research Methodology 11 ❚ Comparative Criminology: International Crime Trends 12 Law and Society: The Sociology of Law 14 Theory Construction and Testing 14 Criminal Behavior Systems and Crime Typologies 14 Penology and Social Control 15 Victimology: Victims and Victimization 15 How Criminologists View Crime 16 The Consensus View of Crime 16 The Confl ict View of Crime 17 The Interactionist View of Crime 17 Defi ning Crime 18 CONTENTS vi Observational and Interview Research 39 Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review 39 Data Mining 39 Crime Mapping 41 Crime Trends 41 Trends in Violent Crime 41 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Explaining Crime Trends 42 Trends in Property Crime 44 Trends in Victimization Data (NCVS Findings) 44 Trends in Self-Reporting 45 What the Future Holds 46 Crime Patterns 47 The Ecology of Crime 47 Use of Firearms 49 Social Class, Socioeconomic Conditions, and Crime 49 Evaluating the Class–Crime Association 49 ❚ Policy and Practice in Criminology: Should Guns Be Controlled? 50 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Crime and Everyday Life 80 Caring for the Victim 81 The Government’s Response to Victimization 82 Victims and Self-Protection 84 Victims’ Rights 85 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: Jesse Timmendequas and Megan’s Law 86 PART TWO THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATION 93 CHAPTER 4 Rational Choice Theory 94 The Development of Rational Choice Theory 96 The Classical Theory of Crime 96 Contemporary Choice Theory Emerges 97 The Concepts of Rational Choice 98 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: Looting the Public Treasury 99 Crime Is Both Offense- and Offender-Specifi c 99 Structuring Criminality 100 Structuring Crime 101 Is Crime Rational? 102 Age and Crime 52 Gender and Crime 53 Race and Crime 55 Chronic Offenders/Criminal Careers 59 CHAPTER 3 Victims and Victimization 68 Problems of Crime Victims 70 Economic Loss 70 System Abuse 70 Long-Term Stress 71 Fear 71 Antisocial Behavior 71 The Nature of Victimization 72 The Social Ecology of Victimization 72 The Victim’s Household 73 Victim Characteristics 73 Victims and Their Criminals 76 Theories of Victimization 77 Victim Precipitation Theory 77 Lifestyle Theory 77 Deviant Place Theory 78 Routine Activities Theory 78 Is Theft Rational? 102 Is Drug Use Rational? 103 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Planning Violence: Murder for Hire 104 Is Violence Rational? 104 Eliminating Crime 106 Situational Crime Prevention 106 ❚ Comparative Criminology: Reducing Crime through Surveillance 108 General Deterrence 109 Specifi c Deterrence 113 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Does Capital Punishment Deter Murder? 114 Incapacitation 116 C O N T E N T S vii Psychological Traits and Characteristics 158 Personality and Crime 159 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: The Psychopath 160 Intelligence and Crime 161 Public Policy Implications of Trait Theory 163 CHAPTER 6 Social Structure Theories 176 Socioeconomic Structure and Crime 178 The Underclass 179 Child Poverty 179 Minority Group Poverty 180 ❚ Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: There Goes the Neighborhood 181 Social Structure Theories 182 Social Disorganization Theory 183 The Social Ecology School 186 Collective Effi cacy 188 Strain Theories 190 The Concept of Anomie 191 Merton’s Theory of Anomie 192 Macro-Level Theory: Institutional Anomie Theory 193 Micro-Level Theory: General Strain Theory 194 Sources of Strain 195 Coping with Strain 196 Evaluating GST 197 Cultural Deviance Theories 197 Conduct Norms 198 Focal Concerns 198 Theory of Delinquent Subcultures 198 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: A Life in the Drug Trade 200 ❚ Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: The Code of the Streets 201 Theory of Differential Opportunity 202 Evaluating Social Structure Theories 203 Public Policy Implications of Social Structure Theory 204 CHAPTER 7 Social Process Theories 212 Socialization and Crime 214 Family Relations 214 Educational Experience 216 Peer Relations 217 Institutional Involvement and Belief 217 The Effects of Socialization on Crime 218 Public Policy Implications of Choice Theory 118 Just Desert 119 CHAPTER 5 Trait Theories 128 Foundations of Trait Theory 130 Sociobiology 131 Contemporary Trait Theories 131 Biological Trait Theories: Biosocial Theory 132 Biochemical Conditions and Crime 132 ❚ Comparative Criminology: Diet and Crime: An International Perspective 136 Neurophysiological Conditions and Crime 138 Arousal Theory 141 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Teenage Behavior: Is It the Brain? 142 Genetics and Crime 143 Evolutionary Theory 146 Evaluation of the Biosocial Branch of Trait Theory 147 Psychological Trait Theories 147 Psychodynamic Theory 149 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: Andrea Yates 152 Behavioral Theory 153 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Violent Media/Violent Behavior? 154 Cognitive Theory 156 viii C O N T E N T S Social Learning Theory 219 Differential Association Theory 219 Differential Reinforcement Theory 222 Neutralization Theory 223 Are Learning Theories Valid? 224 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: When Being Good Is Bad 225 Social Control Theory 226 Self-Concept and Crime 226 Hirschi’s Social Bond Theory 227 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: Alpha Dog 229 Social Reaction Theory 230 Interpreting Crime 231 Differential Enforcement 231 Consequences of Labeling 232 Primary and Secondary Deviance 233 Research on Social Reaction Theory 233 Is Labeling Theory Valid? 234 Evaluating Social Process Theories 234 Public Policy Implications of Social Process Theory 235 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Storylines 236 CHAPTER 8 Social Confl ict, Critical Criminology, and Restorative Justice 244 Marxist Thought 246 Productive Forces and Productive Relations 246 A Marxist Vision of Crime 248 Creating a Critical Criminology 248 Contemporary Critical Criminology 250 How Critical Criminologists Defi ne Crime 250 How Critical Criminologists View the Cause of Crime 251 Globalization 252 Instrumental vs. Structural Theory 252 Instrumental Theory 253 Structural Theory 253 Research on Critical Criminology 253 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: Mumia Abu-Jamal 254 Critique of Critical Criminology 255 Emerging Forms of Critical Criminology 255 Left Realism 255 Critical Feminist Theory 256 Power–Control Theory 257 Peacemaking Criminology 258 Critical Theory and Public Policy 259 The Concept of Restorative Justice 259 Reintegrative Shaming 260 The Process of Restoration 261 The Challenge of Restorative Justice 262 ❚ Comparative Criminology: Restoration in the International Community 263 CHAPTER 9 Developmental Theories: Life Course and Latent Trait 270 Foundations of Developmental Theory 272 Life Course Fundamentals 273 Disruption Promotes Criminality 273 Changing Life Infl uences 273 Life Course Concepts 274 Problem Behavior Syndrome 274 Pathways to Crime 274 Age of Onset/Continuity of Crime 275 Adolescent-Limiteds and Life Course Persisters 277 Theories of the Criminal Life Course 277 Sampson and Laub: Age-Graded Theory 278 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: Shared Beginnings, Divergent Lives 282 Latent Trait Theories 283 Crime and Human Nature 285 General Theory of Crime 285 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: James Paul Lewis, Jr.: “Crimes Against Humanity” 288 Evaluating Developmental Theories 291 Public Policy Implications of Developmental Theory 292 PART THREE CRIME TYPOLOGIES 299 CHAPTER 10 Interpersonal Violence 300 The Causes of Violence 302 Psychological/Biological Abnormality 302 Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct 302 Substance Abuse 303 Socialization and Upbringing 303 Exposure to Violence 304 Cultural Values/Subculture of Violence 305 ❚ Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology: The Honor Killing of Women and Girls 306 C O N T E N T S ix Forcible Rape 306 History of Rape 307 Rape and the Military 307 Incidence of Rape 308 Types of Rape and Rapists 308 The Causes of Rape 309 Rape and the Law 310 Murder and Homicide 312 Degrees of Murder 312 The Nature and Extent of Murder 313 Murderous Relations 313 Serial Murder 315 Mass Murderers 316 Assault and Battery 317 Nature and Extent of Assault 317 Assault in the Home 318 Robbery 320 Acquaintance Robbery 321 Rational Robbery 322 Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence 322 Hate Crimes 322 Terrorist and Insurgent 347 Terrorist and Revolutionary 348 A Brief History of Terrorism 348 Religious Roots 348 Political Roots 349 Contemporary Forms of
Answered 4 days AfterNov 26, 2023

Answer To: In a very general sense chapters, four and five examine crime and criminality from a more individual...

Deblina answered on Nov 30 2023
19 Votes
Table of Contents
Introduction    3
Social Disorganization Theory    3
Strain Theory    4
Cultural De
viance Theory    4
Conclusion    5
The social structure perspective within criminology offers valuable insights into the relationship between societal conditions and criminal behavior. This theoretical framework comprises three key branches: social disorganization theory, strain theory, and cultural deviance theory. These branches collectively emphasize the impact of social and environmental factors on shaping criminal conduct, shedding light on the significance of neighborhood conditions, economic disparities, and cultural influences in understanding why individuals engage in criminal activities.
Social Disorganization Theory
· Focus: Neighborhood ecological characteristics influencing crime rates.
· Deteriorated areas lead to breakdown of social institutions (family, schools, etc.).
· Factors contributing to social disorganization: high unemployment, school dropout rates, inadequate housing, and weak social control.
· Residents' disinterest in community matters due to a desire to leave destabilizes neighborhoods.
· Indicators of Disorganization: Factors such as high unemployment, school dropout rates, inadequate housing, and weak social control are indicators of social disorganization.
· Community Destabilization:...

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