KINDLY ANSWER THE NUMBER ONE AND NUMBER TWO FOR 125 WORDS EACH… NO NEED TO REFERENCE IT JUST FROM THE TUTOR VIEW POINT THANKS
The biggest difference between the IPv4 and the IPv6 is that with the addressing method, the IPv4 uses a numeric address and the IPv6 uses an alphanumeric address, which is separated by a colon instead of a dot. The address type for the IPv4 is unicast, broadcast and multicast, as to where the IPv6 uses unicast, multicast and anycast. The network configuration with the IPv4 is manually done or with DHCP while the IPv6 uses an auto configuration process. The number of classes for IPv4 is from A to E as to where with the IPv6 there is an unlimited number of IP addresses. (Margaret 2021)
In the world of IT the IPv4 is the fourth version of the internet protocol, which has been created in order to create the rules for computer networks to function properly. With the IPv4 it has the capabilities to know whenever a device is connected to the network it will create a specific IP address for that device. With this protocol it is ran off a 32-bit address system, which can store 4.19 billion addresses. The IPv4 has connectionless protocols, creates simple virtual communication layer for devices, provides video libraries and conferences and it uses less memory and remembers addresses with ease. (Margaret 2021)
The IPv6 runs off a 128-bit system, which has solved many of the problems with limited network address resources, but also provides the ability to remove the barriers for multiple access to many devices being able to connect to the internet at one time. This protocol provides a hierarchical addressing and routing process, stateful and stateless configuration, uses quality of service and best option to use with neighboring node interaction. (Margaret 2021)
Working with a big company the need for more devices connected to the network, is almost a must these days, practically each person needs a computer, a printer connected, fax machine, and many more items so man IP addresses is a must. Even for myself at my house, I have my phone connected to the network, son’s phone, daughter’s phone, my Xbox, son’s Xbox, my computer, daughter’s blue ray player and a TV all connected to my network, the need for an IP address for every item that is connected to the network, I can really see how the need for the IPv6 is a must in homes today. The one thing I see can be an issue with the migration is that the Quality of Service is not supported with the IPv6 and same for the SNMP. (Margaret 2021)
Margaret. (November 3, XXXXXXXXXXIPv4 vs IPv6: Which is Faster?. Received from https://community.fs.com/blog/ipv4-vs-ipv6-whats-the-difference.html
For this weeks’ discussion board assignment, we were asked to reference internet protocol versions 4 and 6, also referred to as IPv4 and IPv6. An IP address also commonly referred to as Internet Protocol addresses, are an assigned set of numbers provided to a particular system or devices that has access to the IoT. This is an incredibly important factor when having a device that is capable of connecting to the internet. As without one you are not permitted to transmit data across the airwave. Sure, there are spoofs and things of that nature that can hide and/or manipulate IP addresses, in the absence of them all together the internet would be nonexistent.
Internet Protocol version 4(IPv4) was initially developed in the early years of the 80s. IPv4 still routes most of the world’s internet traffic, and this is in despite of Internet Protocol version 6(IPv6) being more modern. IPv4 utilizes what is known as a 32-bit address, which is capable of handling a maximum of around more than four billion IP addresses. This protocol version consists of four groups of segmented numbers that may range from 0 to 255, and that are separated by full stops.(Hiley, 2022) More times than not individual will find that the IP address assigned to their devices is that of the version 4. What this may look like when trying to determine if you are utilizing a IPv4 is: XXXXXXXXXX.
As stated prior this version has been around since the early 80s, with a cap on how many IP address are available. Which raises an issue now as the technology era has caused a boom in how many things access the internet simultaneously and the number of devices each household possess. Which cause us to run out of available IP address prompting developers to create new version and method for obtaining more to ensure everyone with all their devices, such as smartphones, smart watches, smart tv’s, computers, laptops, gaming system, security camera and other features, smart appliances, and so forth could stay connect to the IoT. There was an Internet Protocol version 5 but that IPv5, but notion was killed before the protocols full launch as it utilized the same 32-bit addressing scheme as IPv4 and would have faced the same fate in the long run.(Hiley, 2022) Some of the pros associated with IPv4 is end-user simplicity of both reading and remember the address, existing infrastructure as a majority of websites currently still utilize version 4, and it has a proven technology track record as it has been around and utilized for so long. Some of the cons associated with this version is the fact that resources are running dry, it is prone to subnetting issues, consist of weak protocol extensibility due to the insufficient amount of header space, and problems with security communications as there are no means provided to limit the amount of accessible information host on a network.
Moving on to IPv6, which is the sixth iteration of the Internet Protocol was developed as end-user were in danger of running out of IPv4 addresses, therefore forfeiting our ability to connect to the IoT. In a nutshell IPv6 pretty much operate in the same manner as IPv4, as it is designed to provide unique numerical IP addresses that devices require in order to be able to transmit data across the internet. Nevertheless, quiet naturally one may imagine that the numeric values associated with an IPv6 address is a lot lengthier than that of an IPv4. What this means is that end-users are able to create a plethora of additional distinctive IP addresses, then the allowed scope of the IPv4.(Hiley, 2022) The Internet Protocol version 6 utilizes a 128-bit address made up of eight groups of four hexadecimal digits (separated by colons, not full stops like IPv4), which in turn can produce over 340 undecillion (to get a better idea that is 340*10^36) IP addresses, which is an insane amount but every much so needed. What an IPv6 would look like is similar to the following: 2220:0dc8:52a1:0000:0012:3a5b:1471:5427, so as you can see there is a lot of space to work with to create numerous unique addresses to keep everyone connected to the internet.
There are a number of benefits associated with IPv6 one of course being the number of unique addresses available, the fact that newer devices are being developed with IPv6 in mind therefore supported, there is little to none subnetting issues at this time. Another pro is that the routing process is more efficient as the amount of routing tables utilized has been moderated. In addition to this assistance that is offered for multicast permits bandwidth-intensive packets to be transmitted to multiple destinations simultaneously, leading to the perseverance of bandwidth, holding a leverage over that of simple broadcasting.(Ferrill, 2021) The sixth version of the Internet Protocol also possesses what is known as auto-configuration, what this means to end-user is simple configuration tasks, that includes methods such as device numbering and IP address assignment can occur on an automatic basis. The last benefit that I will mention in this DB is the enhanced security attributes that are included in this version that were lacking in the fourth such as, authentication, confidentiality, and data integrity have all had an upgrade in this version as the world of technology grows so did the need of security within our internet protocols. Like everything else it also has it downside, some of these include the addresses being much lengthier than IPv4 therefore the simplicity met in IPv4 is not existent within this version, it is not as widely utilized and distributed as the previous protocol therefore not yet supported by all internet site, and the same may be true especially for older devices and system who may run into support conflict issues.
Despite the fact that IPv6 has been around since the end of the 90’s, in an attempt to secede the IPv4 prior to it running out of IP addresses the shift has been slow but still gradual.(Hiley, 2022) I believe the driving force for this is the fact that it cost both time and money to upgrade all the equipment involve that includes things such as routers, servers, bridges, hubs, switches, and even the device itself in some instances when the IPv4 is current still functioning at a level that allows us to stay connected even if not in the best, fastest, or safest manner possible. Is the IPv6 an upgrade yes, is it ready to go right now yes, but for many who still have access to working IPv4 is it necessary and that answer for many is no. Meaning for a complete switch to occur the IPv4 needed to be decimated forcing all to switch over to the IPv6, which I can does not see happening. At least until the devices we use are all no supportive of the older version.
When it comes down to what the main differences are between the two protocols are, it boils down to the sizes of the IP addresses associated with each protocol type. As mentioned, early IPv4 consist of a 32-bit address with full stop dividers in place, whereas though the IPv6 consist of 128-bit hexadecimal address separated by commas. The IPv6 provides an enormous address space, and it holds a simple header in comparison to that of the IPv4. The sole reason IPv6 increased to utilizing 128-bits was to accommodate the grander demand for IP address as technology leans more on the internet now than ever before. It has been estimated and documented that there is more than 4*10^18 IPv6 addresses per a square meter radius of the Earth's surface, meaning that for the foreseeable future the world will not be faced with another IP shortage.(Hiley, 2022) I also mentioned that security was another benefit associated with IPv6 one reason for this notion is that it this protocol version encoding utilizes a hierarchy that shares resemblance to the Classless Inter-Domain Routing also known as CIDR, which simplifies the routing and/or subnetting processes. Outside of having an abundant amount of addition IP address over its predecessor, it is also equipped with supplementary functionality such as the previously touched upon notion of its provision of multicasting addressing, which benefits the enabling of bandwidth-intensive data (such as multimedia streams), to be transmitted to numerous terminuses simultaneously. And let’s face it any time we can reduce bandwidth, we are in turn speeding up the transmission process and allowing our systems to run more efficiently.(Margaret, 2021) Another difference and benefit one might add is IPv6 enables devices to remain connected to various networks at any given time, due to built-in configuration capabilities that enables the hardware to be able to assign several IP addresses for a single device automatically. This is all part of the auto configuration that I mentioned in the benefit area above as this feature also allows end-user to generate an IP address as soon as a device is turned on and trying to access the IoT. How this feature works as once the device is powered up it will begin scanning for a route that is IPv6 compatible, and if one is detected the devices than simple generates both a local address and globally routable address simultaneously. This under normal circumstances is not the case with IPv4 as normally all devices need to manually be processed through, even though they man scan the area they wait for instructions and configurations from the end-user operating the device.
Like I said no thing is perfect, so another difference goes for a loss with IPv6 but a win for IPv4 as since it is more established than its successor more software’s, systems, and virtual environments accept this version over the sixth. An example of this is the fact that many VPN’s still have connectivity issues are they all do not yet support IPv6, and this is also true for some older devices and system the hardware classes with the newer protocol version, but since IPv4 been around for so long it runs on both old and newer devices and so forth. The security differs as IPv6 was designed after seeing the issues faced in IPv4, therefore they implemented things on a grander scale. Within the build of IPv6 is IP Security or IPSec if you will consist of a series of committed IETF security protocols which stimulates authentication, data integrity, and overall security.(Hiley, 2022) And under initial development it required end-users to utilize encryption tactics for internet traffic utilizing IPSec, meaning by default the content of your internet traffic was scrambled and hackers trying to intercept had no use for the content in its undeciphered form. While within the IPv4 IPSec is supported but need to be implemented, for a cost. So, we can expect to see an expansion of IPSec utilization in default formation as end-user shift from IPv4 to IPv6 in the future.
When it comes to large corporations and the choice of migrating to IPv6 I would suggest that it is done. The reason behind this notion as you expect larger organization to continue to or at least that is the objective. By switching to IPv6 they are opening and securing large amount of IP address for current and future utilization. The good thing is that it does not all have to be done at a single time or in one swoop. I say this as it is possible to use both IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously. The way I would personally go about this is by utilizing dual-stack technology interfaces, as this will allow for devices to run IPv4 and IPv6 in parallel. One thing to bear in mind is that you can convert IPv4 to IPv6 on a larger upgrade scale which is simpler than downgrading from an IPv6 to IPv4. It is possible however only a very small portion of IPv6 will be converted to IPv4, and that goes back to the lack of IP address that IPv4 has compared to the successor version.(Cisco, 2022) Another reason I would suggest at least a partial upgrade to the internet protocol utilized by larger corporation is aside from having space to continue to grow, and the prospect of improved speeds, end-users also will be able to surrender the need for utilizing the port forwarding feature, and a bonus incentive is the devices running on IPv6 will be provided its own public IP address. To upgrade is simple if the OS being ran on devices, the router feeding the network, and ISP supports IPv6, this can be enabled at any given time. For example, if you are currently running Windows 10 or 11, you can navigate to settings and then to the Network and Sharing Center, then check the box next to Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) to enable IPv6. The only addition thing that you may need to do is contact your ISP if your plan or router does not accommodate this already. The reason I strongly encourage keeping both at this given time is that IPv6 still has some accessibility issues. As only about one third of the internet supports this version of IP addresses, and similar margins for that of supported devices, software, and VPN’s.
In closing at the end of the day both the IPv4 and the IPv6 specifications are capable of defining private IP address ranges. Private network IP addresses are not allocated to any organization in particularly, meaning any end-user has the option to utilize these kinds of addresses without needing to be granted prior approval.(Ferrill, 2021) Also, similar both internet protocol version supports both dynamic and static routing features, with similar structural configuration commands intact. The difference present itself whereas though IPv6 proposes various ways for the assignment of such IP addresses that is not at all possible when dealing with and assign IPv4 or even DNS for that matter. And it is for that sole reason that I would push to implement IPv6, but I still would not complete dislocate IPv4. I would continue to run both in parallel planes until there is a dire need to obliterate IPv4 and solely utilize that of the IPv6.
Cisco. (2022, April 01).Dual Stack Network. Retrieved from Cisco: https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/en_us/solutions/industries/docs/gov/IPV6at_a_glance_c XXXXXXXXXXpdf
Ferrill, T. (2021, January 29).IPv6: How to configure static and DHCP IP addressing and deal with DNS. Retrieved from Network World: https://www.networkworld.com/article/2228461/setting-up-dhcpv6-to-dynamically-issue-ipv6-addresses-in-a-network.html
Hiley, C. (2022, March 16).IPv4 vs IPv6: what are they and what's the difference?Retrieved from Cyber News: https://cybernews.com/what-is-vpn/ipv4-vs-ipv6/
Margaret. (2021, November 03).IPv4 vs IPv6: Which is Faster?Retrieved from FS Community: https://community.fs.com/blog/ipv4-vs-ipv6-whats-the-difference.html#:~:text=The%20main%20difference%20between%20IPv4,header%20as%20compared%20to%20IPv4.