Take into consideration our nation's two primary crime measures below. Consider what is reported in these two measures. What are the strengths and weaknesses of these measures?1. Uniform Crime Report...

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Take into consideration our nation's two primary crime measures below. Consider what is reported in these two measures. What are the strengths and weaknesses of these measures?








1. Uniform Crime Report (UCR)--FBI








2. National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVR)--Bureau of Justice Statistics











Discussion Prompt











Should we be skeptical about crime statistics? Provide a short discussion post to this prompt





2017 NCVRW Resource Guide: Crime and Victimization in the United States Fact Sheet Crime & Victimization in the United States 2017 National Crime Victims’ Rights Week: Crime and Victimization Fact Sheets The FBI’s Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) and the Bureau of Justice Statistics’s National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) are the two largest and most comprehensive resources for information relating to crime and victimization in the United States. While the UCR and the NCVS serve separate purposes, they complement each other in a number of ways. The most important distinction between the two is that the UCR reports information regarding crimes known to law enforcement agencies (but cannot reflect unreported crime), while the NCVS measures reported and unreported victimizations, helping researchers identify “the dark figure of crime”—those hidden victimizations that the UCR is unable to track. Together the UCR and the NCVS provide researchers, policymakers, and the public with a general understanding regarding the state of crime and victimization in the United States. Uniform Crime Report The Uniform Crime Report (UCR), launched in 1929, collects information reported to law enforcement agencies on the following crimes: murder and non-negligent homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, human trafficking, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. Law enforcement agencies also report arrest data for 22 additional crime categories (e.g., forgery and counterfeiting, drug abuse violations, disorderly conduct, vagrancy). Each year, the FBI issues a report on the main UCR findings, titled Crime in the United States, as well as several other reports (e.g., Hate Crimes 2015 and Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2015). The UCR presents crime counts for the entire nation, as well as for regions, states, counties, cities, towns, tribal law enforcement, and colleges and universities. Its primary purpose is to provide reliable criminal justice statistics for law enforcement administration and management. National Crime Victimization Survey The methodology for the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), which began in 1973, differs from that of the UCR. The NCVS is based on a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Household members age 12 and older are interviewed by the U.S. Census Bureau every 6 months for a 3-year period. The NCVS collects information on the frequency and nature of: rape, sexual assault, robbery, aggravated and simple assault, household burglary, theft, and motor vehicle theft. It does not, however, measure homicide, commercial crimes, crimes against residents under 12 years old, or crimes against individuals in other residential settings (e.g., nursing homes, long-term care facilities), and may exclude highly mobile populations and people who are homeless. It gathers information on crimes both reported and not reported to the police, estimates the proportion of crimes reported to law enforcement, and describes the reasons victims gave for reporting or not reporting. The NCVS also includes questions about victims’ experiences with the criminal justice system, possible substance use by offenders, and how victims sought to protect themselves. The NCVS collects demographic information about both victims and offenders (e.g., age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, income, educational level, relationship between victim and offender), as well as information about the crimes (including time and place of occurrence, use of weapons, nature of injury, and economic impact). The NCVS also collects periodic supplements on specific crime issues such as stalking or school crime. UCR Crimes • murder/non-negligent manslaughter • rape • robbery • aggravated assault • human trafficking • burglary • larceny-theft • motor vehicle theft • arson NCVS Crimes • rape • sexual assault • robbery • aggravated assault • simple assault • household burglary • theft • motor vehicle theft RESOURCES FBI, “Uniform Crime Reporting,” (U.S. Department of Justice), https://ucr.fbi.gov Bureau of Justice Statistics, “National Crime Victimization Survey,” (U.S. Department of Justice), https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245 UCR Improvements 1. Continuing the transition from SRS (the current UCR method of data collection) to the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) by 2021. 2. Providing researchers, policymakers, and the general public with information regarding the use-of- force or the discharge of a firearm by law enforcement officers. NCVS Improvements 1. Providing subnational estimates: While the original purpose of the NCVS was to provide estimates of victimization at the national level, the NCVS subnational program underway will generate victimization estimates for the 22 largest states. 2. Modernizing socio-demographic information to reflect victimization by sexual orientation, gender identity, veteran status, and citizenship. 3. Expanding the information collected about formal and informal help-seeking behavior, issues related to fear of crime, and perceptions of neighborhood disorder and police performance. 4. Expanding the type of crimes collected in the NCVS, including stalking and fraud. The Bureau of Justice Statistics in partnership with the Office for Victims of Crime is also launching the new Victim Services Statistical Research Program (VSSRP) to build a critical body of knowledge for the field by collecting and analyzing national data from victims and the diverse entities that serve them. In addition to data collected from victims as described above, data collected directly from entities that serve victims is important for understanding whether providers have the capacity to meet the needs of all victims seeking services. BJS’s VSSRP includes a number of initiatives to collect information from victim service providers, including the new National Census of Victim Service Providers (NCVSP) and National Survey of Victim Service Providers (NSVSP), both designed to help define and enhance understanding of all types of providers in the field. While the UCR and the NCVS are important resources for researchers, policymakers, and the public, they cannot address all crimes or all victimizations. And though national collection efforts continue to grow, gaps still exist, particularly for emerging crimes, including elder victimization, human trafficking, financial crime (especially Internet-based fraud), stalking, and mass casualty crimes. The Future of Crime and Victimization Research In 2015, the UCR Program released a plan to improve and modernize their data collection. Two key aspects of this plan included: The NCVS is also currently undergoing a redesign. This multi-year effort to fill long-standing gaps in information will include: Other efforts focus on particular types of service providers, such as the collaboration between BJS and the National Center for Health Statistics to develop a new National Survey of Hospital Victim Services to better understand the range of hospital services available for crime victims. BJS has also added questions about victim services to existing surveys of law enforcement agencies and prosecutors’ offices. Together, all of these efforts will offer the most comprehensive picture of victim service provision to date. https://ucr.fbi.gov/ https://ucr.fbi.gov/ https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245 https://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245 http://www.ovc.gov http://www.victimsofcrime.org https://ucr.fbi.gov/ucr-publications http://www.ojp.gov 9781439065785.pdf TENTH EDITION CRIMINOLOGY THEORIES, PATTERNS, AND TYPOLOGIES Larry J. Siegel University of Massachusetts, Lowell Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States © 2010, 2007 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored, or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Control Number: 2008932091 Student Edition: ISBN-13: 978-0-495-60031-2 ISBN-10: 0-495-60031-8 Loose-Leaf Edition: ISBN-13: 978-0-495-60030-5 ISBN-10: 0-495-60030-X Wadsworth 10 Davis Drive Belmont, CA 94002-3098 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with offi ce locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local offi ce at www.cengage.com/international. Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. To learn more about Wadsworth, visit www.cengage.com/wadsworth. Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.ichapters.com. Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies, Tenth Edition Larry J. Siegel Senior Acquisitions Editor, Criminal Justice: Carolyn Henderson Meier Development Editor: Shelley Murphy Assistant Editor: Meaghan Banks Editorial Assistant: John Chell Technology Project Manager: Bessie Weiss Marketing Manager: Michelle Williams Marketing Assistant: Jillian Myers Marketing Communications Manager: Tami Strang Project Manager, Editorial Production: Jennie Redwitz Creative Director: Rob Hugel Art Director: Maria Epes Print Buyer: Becky Cross Permissions Editor: Bobbie Broyer Production Service: Linda Jupiter Productions Text Designer: Tani Hasegawa Photo Researcher: Linda Rill Copy Editor: Lunaea Weatherstone Proofreader: Debra Gates Indexer: Medea Minnich Illustrator: Scientifi c Illustrators Cover Designer: Yvo Riezebos, Riezebos Holzbaur Design Group Cover Image: Naoki Okamoto/SuperStock Compositor: International Typesetting and Composition For product information and technology assistance, contact us at Cengage Learning Customer & Sales Support, 1-800-354-9706. For permission to use material from this text or product, submit all requests online at www.cengage.com/permissions. Further permissions questions can be e-mailed to [email protected]. Printed in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 11 10 09 08 www.cengage.com/international www.cengage.com/wadsworth www.ichapters.com www.cengage.com/permissions This book is dedicated to my kids, Eric, Andrew, Julie, and Rachel, and to my grandkids, Jack, Kayla, and Brooke. It is also dedicated to Jason Macy (thanks for marrying Rachel) and Therese J. Libby (thanks for marrying me). ABOUT THE AUTHOR Larry J. Siegel was born in the Bronx in 1947. While living on Jerome Avenue and attending City College of New York in the 1960s, he was swept up in the social and political currents of the time. He became intrigued with the infl uence contemporary culture had on individual behavior: Did people shape society or did society shape people? He applied his interest in social forces and human behavior to the study of crime and justice. After graduating CCNY, he attended the newly opened program in criminal justice at the State University of New York at Albany, earning both his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees there. After completing his graduate work, Dr. Siegel began his teaching career at North- eastern University, where he was a faculty member for nine years. After leaving Northeastern, he held teaching positions at the University of Nebraska–Omaha and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. He is currently a professor at the University of Massachusetts–Lowell. Dr. Siegel has written extensively in the area of crime and justice, including books on juvenile law, delinquency, criminology, criminal justice, and criminal procedure. He is a court certifi ed expert on police conduct and has testifi ed in numerous legal cases. The father of four and grandfather of three, Larry Siegel and his wife, Terry, now reside in Bedford, New Hampshire, with their two dogs, Watson and Cody. BRIEF CONTENTS PART ONE CONCEPTS OF CRIME, LAW, AND CRIMINOLOGY CHAPTER 1 Crime and Criminology 2 CHAPTER 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 28 CHAPTER 3 Victims and Victimization 68 PART TWO THEORIES OF CRIME CAUSATION CHAPTER 4 Rational Choice Theory 94 CHAPTER 5 Trait Theories 128 CHAPTER 6 Social Structure Theories 176 CHAPTER 7 Social Process Theories 212 CHAPTER 8 Social Confl ict, Critical Criminology, and Restorative Justice 244 CHAPTER 9 Developmental Theories: Life Course and Latent Trait 270 PART THREE CRIME TYPOLOGIES CHAPTER 10 Interpersonal Violence 300 CHAPTER 11 Political Crime and Terrorism 334 CHAPTER 12 Property Crime 368 CHAPTER 13 Enterprise Crime: White-Collar and Organized Crime 394 CHAPTER 14 Public Order Crime: Sex and Substance Abuse 424 CHAPTER 15 Cyber Crime and Technology 466 v Crime and the Criminal Law 18 Common Law 19 Contemporary Criminal Law 19 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: The Mother of All Snakeheads 21 The Evolution of Criminal Law 21 ❚ The Criminological Enterprise: The Elements of Criminal Law 22 Ethical Issues in Criminology 23 What to Study? 24 Whom to Study? 24 How to Study? 24 CHAPTER 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 28 Primary Sources of Crime Data: Record Data 30 Offi cial Record Research 30 The Uniform Crime Report 30 ❚ PROFILES IN CRIME: A Pain in the Glass 33 Primary Sources of Crime Data: Survey Research 34 The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 34 Self-Report Surveys 35 Evaluating the Primary Sources of Crime Data 37 Secondary Sources of Crime Data 38 Cohort Research 38 Experimental Research 38 Preface xiv PART ONE CONCEPTS OF CRIME, LAW, AND CRIMINOLOGY 1 CHAPTER 1 Crime and Criminology 2 What Is Criminology? 4 Criminology and Criminal Justice 4 Criminology and Deviance
Answered 2 days AfterNov 08, 2023

Answer To: Take into consideration our nation's two primary crime measures below. Consider what is reported in...

Sanjukta answered on Nov 10 2023
18 Votes
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Crime
Uniform Crime Report (UCR)—FBI
Strengths- It is one of the most valuable sources in term
s of learning about the victimization as more than 97% of the population is represented by the agencies which participated in the UCR program. Another major strength of UCR tends to showcase crime counts for the nation as a whole.
Weaknesses- The index offences do not cover a lot of crimes that takes place like the sexual assaults or the simple assault other than federal crimes and rape are not at all counted. Hierarchy rule is...
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