Running Head: THEORECTICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1 THEORECTICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 4 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Assignment Gretchen Carter University of Phoenix DOC/723: Doctoral...

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Running Head: THEORECTICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 1 THEORECTICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 4 Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Assignment Gretchen Carter University of Phoenix DOC/723: Doctoral Seminar Dr. Tiffani Bateman May 28, 2022 Relation of Located Dissertations to Chosen Research Design The dissertations from the university library and selected for the research purpose have helped mold the conceptual framework for my research. These dissertations also framed a theoretical framework, which helped me understand different theories related to summer reading loss. To design one for the current research, it was required to study in depth the available theories so that a workable framework can be developed which has effectiveness when applied in schools. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework The research on summer reading is a qualitative study for which several articles were reviewed and available to the scholar as resourceful literature. It is the right fit for the research because it focuses on collecting data through communication and open-ended conversations. The focus is more on why rather than what. The focus groups from schools, libraries, income groups, and teachers were considered to get the data. Various programs used by schools are used as a measure to improve summer reading loss. These programs help collect numeric data estimates regarding students who eagerly participated, how the improvement was monitored, the implications of such actions, and how it will positively affect their academic performance. The literature was also helpful in understanding the application of theory and materializing the conceptual framework. The below-mentioned figure represents the conceptual framework. Figure: Conceptual Framework This paper aims to provide the essence of conceptual and theoretical frameworks. Conceptual and theoretical frameworks are aspects that often overlook the basics of research. However, it is not easy to distinguish whether a theory or framework is right or wrong. Therefore, it is crucial to determine how they can be employed in guiding a research study and be described as the results of a study. The Conceptual Framework of a dissertation represents how the author will explore the problem and is generally affiliated with qualitative research (Laureate Education, 2016). First, the author identifies this study's conceptual framework, which will be used to complete a program evaluation (Ayers, 2011). The Conceptual Framework helps understand what government interventions were taken and how external partners participated in the programs (Hall, 2022). Program mediators and program components will measure the summer programs and their impact on children's learning curve. Summer activities and school intervention by giving reading goals as summer holiday homework helped parents get involved and take help from public libraries or neighborhoods to ensure that their children read and build fluency and vocabulary with the language. Quantitative or Qualitative Methodology The qualitative methodology is used for the research. Seemingly, a qualitative study helps study the beliefs, aspirations, motivations, meanings, perceptions, and values of the research participants concerning living contexts and subjectivity (Brooks, 2021). The qualitative methodology sheathes. The qualitative method can accommodate a broad spectrum of research methodologies, so different epistemological assumptions. This planned and strategic design aims to answer the research question governed by philosophy, methods, and methodology. Various theories like Faucet theory and social–learning theory were included so that data collected can justify the impact of theories on summer reading loss. It will also be helpful in purposive sampling to develop a theory. The nature of the research problem also played a role in deciding the methodology for qualitative study. For instance, how summer readings from leisure activity become a vital part of academic performance since it has been tried to establish a relationship between summer reading and academic performance. References Ayres, K. D. (2011). A summative program evaluation of a systemic intervention on student achievement and AP participation (Doctoral dissertation, pp. 18–21). Retrieved from Brooks, L. R. (2021). A Study of Retention Through the Effectiveness in Academic Support Services at a Historically Black College: A Case Study (Order No. 28962857). Available from Dissertations & Theses @ University of Phoenix. (2623460286). Hall, D. (2022). Salient Beliefs of Obese Individuals: A Qualitative Study Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (Order No. 29069366). Available from Dissertations & Theses @ University of Phoenix. (2659703045). Laureate Education (Producer). (2016). Theoretical/conceptual framework [Media file]. Baltimore, MD: Author. 39 Biologist Bernd Heinrich (1984, pp. 141–151) and his associates once spent a summer conducting detailed, systematic research on ant lions, small insects that trap ants in pits they have dug. Returning to the university in the fall, Heinrich was surprised to dis- cover that his results were quite different from those published by other researchers. Redoing his experiments the following summer to try to understand these discrepan- cies, Heinrich found that he and his fellow researchers had been led astray by an unex- amined assumption they had made about the ant lions’ time frame: Their observations hadn’t been long enough to detect some key aspects of these insects’ behavior. As he concluded, “Even carefully collected results can be misleading if the underlying context of assumptions is wrong” (p. 151). For this reason, the conceptual framework of your study—the system of concepts, assumptions, expectations, beliefs, and theories that supports and informs your research—is a key part of your design (Miles & Huberman, 1994; Robson, 2011). Miles and Huberman (1994) defined a conceptual framework as a visual or written product, one that “explains, either graphically or in narrative form, the main things to be stud- ied—the key factors, concepts, or variables—and the presumed relationships among them” (p. 18).1 Here, I use the term in a broader sense, to refer to the actual ideas and beliefs that you hold about the phenomena studied, whether these are written down or not; this may also be called the “theoretical framework” or “idea context” for the study. A valuable guide to developing a conceptual framework and using this throughout the research process, with detailed analyses of four actual studies, is Ravitch and Riggan, Reason & Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research (2011). (Full disclosure: Sharon Ravitch is a former student of mine, and I wrote the foreword for the book.) The most important thing to understand about your conceptual framework is that it is primarily a conception or model of what is out there that you plan to study, and of what is going on with these things and why—a tentative theory of the phenomena that you are investigating. The function of this theory is to inform the rest of your design— to help you to assess and refine your goals, develop realistic and relevant research questions, select appropriate methods, and identify potential validity threats to your 3 Conceptual Framework What Do You Think Is Going On? 40 QualITaTIve ReseaRch DesIGn conclusions. It also helps you justify your research, something I discuss in more detail in Chapter 7. In this chapter, I discuss the different sources for this theory, and how to use theory effectively in your design. I describe the nature of theory in more detail later in the chapter, in dealing with the uses of existing theory. Here, I want to emphasize that your conceptual framework is a theory, however tentative or incomplete it may be. What is often called the “research problem” is a part of your conceptual framework, and formulating the research problem is often seen as a key task in designing your study. It is part of your conceptual framework (although it is often treated as a separate component of a research design or proposal) because it identifies something that is going on in the world, something that is itself problematic or that has consequences that are problematic. Your research problem functions (in combination with your goals) to justify your study, to show people why your research is important. In addition, this problem is presumably something that is not fully understood, or that we don’t ade- quately know how to deal with; therefore, we want more information about it. Not every study will have an explicit statement of a research problem, but every good research design contains an implicit or explicit identification of some issue or problem, intellectual or practical, about which more information is needed. (The justification of “needed” is where your goals come into play.) Many writers identify the part of a research design, proposal, or published paper that deals with the conceptual framework of a study as the literature review. This can be a dangerously misleading term. In developing your conceptual framework, you should not simply review and summarize some body of theoretical or empirical publications, for three reasons: 1. It can lead to a narrow focus on the literature, ignoring other conceptual resources that may be of equal or greater importance for your study. As Locke, Spirduso, and Silverman (1993) pointed out, “In any active area of inquiry the current knowledge base is not in the library—it is in the invisible college of informal associations among research workers” (p. 48). This knowledge can be found in unpublished papers, dissertations in progress, and grant applications, as well as in the heads of researchers working in this field. Locke, Spirduso, and Silverman emphasized that “The best introduction to the current status of a research area is close association with advisors who know the territory” (p. 49). In addition, an exclusive orientation toward the literature leads you to ignore your own experience, your speculative thinking (discussed later in the section titled “Thought Experiments”), and any pilot and exploratory research that you’ve done. 2. It tends to generate a strategy of “covering the field” rather than focusing specifically on those studies and theories that are particularly relevant to your research (for more on this, see Maxwell, 2006). Literature reviews that lose sight of this need for relevance often degenerate into a series of “book reports” on the literature, with no clear connecting thread or argument. The relevant studies may be only a small part of the research in a defined field, and may range across a number of different approaches and disciplines.2 The most productive conceptual frameworks are often those that bring in ideas from outside the traditionally defined field of your study, or that integrate different approaches, lines of investigation, or theories that no one had previously connected. Bernd Heinrich used Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations in developing a theory of bumblebee foraging and energy chapTeR 3 CoNCEpTuAL FRAMEWoRk 41 balance that emphasized individual initiative, competition, and a spontaneous division of labor, rather than genetic determination or centralized control (Heinrich, 1979,
Answered 6 days AfterJun 05, 2022


Dr Shweta answered on Jun 11 2022
72 Votes
This literature review is conducted for the project management dissertation titled, “A Consensus Review of Strategies and Techniques Using Best Practices to Increase Summer Reading Growth.
The literature review related to the summer reading loss is discussed below:
Summer learning loss-
For students, summer is a season to calm
and enjoy since in summer there is no school. The concept of summer school breaks was started because due to high summer heat schools become uninhabitable for students in most of the places. However these summer breaks relaxes students, but also creates a large gap in their studies and learning processes. It is reported from various surveys that due to these summer breaks an average student lost  around 17–34% of their previous learning skills during the summer holidays as they gets totally disconnected from the studies. Although these breaks are common for all the students still it affected the students of low-socioeconomic status most. These differences arises because students of high income families can afford to join various summer activity classes and summer camps and nourish their skills while the students of low –income classes cannot afford them. This gap ultimately affects the academic performance of poor students and creates a huge achievement gap mong the student of different socioeconomic status. This difference is actually the summer reading or learning loss. Some people questioned the existence of summer reading loss and wonder if it genuinely exists, so to confirm its existence various investigations were conducted. These studies concluded that summer reading loss is real and is a major issue of concern for schools across the globe and is a documented realism for many students.
In this literature review, different studies related to the investigation of summer learning loss and the possible ways to minimize it are thoroughly reviewed and discussed. For instance, Campbell et al (2019) [1] conducted an investigation on about 5113 students of class four to examine their reading developments during the summer. From their investigations, they found that achievement gains occurred during summer in the students in lowest two quartiles however limited reading growth was achieved in the same students all over the academic year. While, in case of students of upper two quartiles reading loss and limited growth was reported during summer, as compared to the incessant reading growth all over the academic year. These findings confirmed that reading loss affects the student’s growth during summer. Similarly, Slade et al (2017) [2] mentioned that summer learning loss is a well-known phenomenon in North America. They analysed the data of early grade reading assessments of students of North America and reported that after an extended school break, there was significant loss in their reading skills as well as the overall academic performance of the students also reduces. Although, no gender based discrimination was there related to summer reading loss. They calculated the significant average reductions of 0.38 standard deviations during the summer holidays or the transition break between the two grades.
Kuhfeld et al (2019) [3] analysed the data of 3.4 million students and reported that summer learning loss is responsible for the drop in...

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