Answer To: Hi, I need you to create headers for my chapter 2 literature review that is appropriate to the...
Shubham answered on May 21 2022
SAMPLE DISSERTATION TITLE:
A QUALITATIVE E-DELPHI STUDY
A Consensus Review of Strategies and Techniques Using Best Practices to Increase Summer Reading Growth
A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Educational Leadership
University of Phoenix
Summer reading growth is essential for students to sustain skills and knowledge acquired during the previous academic season. Students experience a loss in mathematics, but economically disadvantaged students face a more considerable loss in reading (Bowers & Schwarz, 2017). The academic achievement gap is a significant problem in the United States. Summer learning loss adds to an academic achievement gap (Seawright, 2017). Summer learning loss occurs at a traditional middle school in the southwestern United States (Beach et al., 2018). Comprehension is a significant part of the learning curve. According to research, children who engage in summer reading initiatives enhance their reading comprehension and, therefore, perform better in academic subjects than those who do not engage in such an initiative (Bowers & Schwarz, 2017). The Southwest school district has provided unlimited resources for literacy development throughout the summer. However, the case under study still experiences summer learning loss among its students, even with the emphasis placed on literacy. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Learned recently all identifying information now needs removed so use a pseudonym for this Comment by Gretchen Stampley: district
This chapter provides the background and implications of academic summer school reading programs for elementary school students with explicit stress on a summer curriculum hosted by a Southwest school district. The subject of summer reading programs and their impact on tutorial performance in reading is mentioned as relevant to the planned study. The problem, providing the premise for the study, the statement of purpose, guiding analysis questions, and the nature of the study are conferred during this chapter. The chapter concludes with an announcement of significance and a presentation of relevant terms. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Same idea here replace all of these with just SW state Comment by Gretchen Stampley: a southwest school district
Background of the Problem
Educators have noticed that children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experience significant gaps in learning during the summer months compared to their peers. Furthermore, the gaps will only widen over time (Campbell et al., 2019). The summer reading setback accounts for about 80% of the reading achievement difference, contributing to this disparity (Campbell et al., 2019). Children accelerate at the same rate of learning during the school year. As a group, the reading achievement of low-socioeconomic students typically declines during the summer vacation period, while the reading achievement of children from more economically advantaged families holds steady or increases modestly. Extended vacations from formal education take students away from the classroom's regular learning blueprint and into a period when they are less likely to participate in official literacy programs (Chin et al., 2020).
Parents reading with their children, plus the availability and use of reading resources, are all part of a healthy home literacy environment. Different degrees of parental participation in a home learning environment and a child's lack of participation with texts during a prolonged vacation might help evaluate probable variables leading to summer reading setbacks (Chin et al., 2020). Reading declines in early elementary grades show that, despite significant reading gains established in kindergarten and first grade, the summer session between first and second grade is particularly problematic for students who do not have opportunities to engage with reading during summer recess (Seawright, 2017). The lasting impact of low reading abilities in early grades is associated with low, middle, and high school achievement. Therefore, the implications of reading loss must be addressed (Beach et al., 2018). Comprehensive information for parents through a user-friendly guide is the most appropriate method to address this issue.
Summer reading loss is well documented and is more persistent among students from low-socioeconomic backgrounds who are already at risk for academic failure (de Groot, 2021). Declines in academic achievement during summer break are more prevalent and consistent for students from low socioeconomic backgrounds than students from middle and higher socioeconomic classes (Campbell et al., 2019). Over time, the breach amplifies and leads to an achievement gap among students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This issue has caused policymakers, school districts, and other stakeholders throughout the United States to debate formal year-round education for elementary and middle school students (Seawright, 2017).
In a typical school calendar, summer break for students averages 12 weeks (about three months); this equates to a significant length of time when the educational process is interrupted. During this time away from the structure and reinforcements of the regular school day, home and family variables have influenced reading growth or regression in young students (Campbell et al., 2019). For example, in a 12-week layoff, early learners who lack access to print with little opportunity to read the text at their independent levels will often experience regression in fluency and comprehension skills (Hillier, 2021). This regression is often seen in students from disadvantaged homes (McDaniel et al., 2017).
Many parents from higher socioeconomic backgrounds provide reading enrichment and continuous learning for their children during the summer (Beach et al., 2018). Students who do not continuously learn throughout the summer could lose up to three months of reading progress, setting them further behind for the new academic school year (Campbell et al., 2019). Summer vacation inequalities in educational opportunities and outcomes lead to uneven learning gains (Seawright, 2017). Limited book access, difficulties self-selecting books, the school calendar, socioeconomic status, and the amount of information retained over the summer are all reasons for student reading digressions (Capotosto, 2019). Further investigation is needed to explore strategies to keep students engaged in reading growth throughout the summer to prevent reading growth loss in the Southwest Mississippi's rural, low-socioeconomic school district.
There is no consensus in the research literature regarding the best strategies and techniques used to increase summer reading growth. In addition, there are no available research studies regarding effective practices to increase summer reading growth. This study addresses the gap in literature and aims to determine effective practices for closing the academic achievement gap that occurs during the summer within this school district. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Of what, finish this thought... Comment by Gretchen Stampley: practices to increase summer reading growth
Problem Statement Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Wait, you have no problem statement in your problem statement section. Honestly, I would move all of this to the background of the problem as that was short and this is what was missing. Then see dissertation alignment guide to write a small section here that includes your problem statement in the context of your design and that is cited in current literature showing best industry practices have not been identified. Comment by Gretchen Stampley: section moved to the background Comment by Gretchen Stampley: added the problem statement
The problem is that there are no effective practices available that can close the academic achievement gap that occurs during the summer within this school district and that is why the gap is continuously increasing. Proponents of the faucet theory believe literacy gaps occur during the summer (McDaniel et al., 2017). Despite continued measures to close the achievement gap over the past decades, considerable disparities remain. On average, summer vacations produce an annual achievement gap of approximately three months between wealthy and poor students, biasing the students from the more economically advantaged families (Alexander et al., 2001). Higher-income students have the advantage of continued learning through vacation experiences and summer programming (Morgan et al 2019).
Summer reading loss has been well documented and is more tenacious among pupils from poor socioeconomic conditions who are already at risk of academic failure (Laurie et al., 2019). An academic analyst examined 13 epidemiological findings involving approximately 40,000 schoolchildren and discovered that, on average, the reading competency status of the pupils from lower-income households declined significantly during the summer season. In contrast, the reading competency levels of schoolchildren from middle-income households were enhanced (Capotosto, 2019). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: You have to cite all of your claims Comment by Gretchen Stampley: cited
The availability of reading materials has long been recognized as a factor in differential reading development, since students from low-income families frequently lack access to a home library and therefore do not have the required study material. An evaluation of primary school reading drops reveals that, despite massive reading improvements defined in preschool and kindergarten, the summer activity between second and first grade is incredibly stressful for children. Especially for children who do not have ways to be involved in reading throughout their summer break (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019). Because poor reading attributes in early elementary are related to lower high school attainment, the long-term consequences of reading decline must be acknowledged (McDaniel et al., 2017). Since there are no effective ways available so far that that can cover or close this summer loss completely, this e-Delphi study is conducted. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Break up paragraphs into 3-5 sentences Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: For a delphi study The unknown nature of the problem must be stated in literature and the problem must be cited. You must make the case that the solution to the reading gap for disadvantaged students is not known clear here. Comment by Gretchen Stampley: added statement "Since there are no effective ways available so far that that can cover or close this summer loss completely, this e-Delphi study is conducted".
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this qualitative e-Delphi study is to gain consensus from a panel of education professionals on practical strategies and techniques to increase summer reading growth throughout the summer months in a rural, low-socioeconomic-status school district in a southwest state. Socioeconomic status has a significant impact on summer learning loss, particularly in reading (Beach et al., 2018) but there are no effective measures that can resolve the issue of summer reading loss. The school district is a small, high-poverty school district in southwest Mississippi. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the efficient steps to sort this study loss problem. For this thorough literature review is conducted as suggested by (Volley, 2020). Understanding the research dedicated to summer reading loss is imperative when identifying ways to close the achievement gap (Volley, 2020). Later, through thorough analysis, suitable parameters to close this issue of summer study loss will be identified along with the strategies for effective implementation. Investigating the predictors of success in reading can improve students' academic achievement (Seawright, 2017). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Ok so here, as you are stating this you are saying you already know what causes reading loss during the summer. You are saying that poverty causes reading loss over the summer essentially which I do not think is true. Even if it is what the literature says then you already know the cause of your problem. For this design you don't know the cause of reading loss for socioeconomically disadvantaged students at the school. Have this conversation with your URM to be sure but this alignment still seems to need tightened within the context of your design. Comment by Gretchen Stampley: removed statement
Population and Sample Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: This section still needs some work for clarity. I'm having to search and think through what you are saying to understand and am still not 100% sure I am clear on your intentions. Be very clear and organized with your writing and do not repeat information in different ways.
The study population and the sample should meet the expertise requirements, including practical communication skills, education and experience on the issues, capacity, and compliance to participate, and enough time to complete the e-Delphi study (Volley, 2020). The sample population will consist of district-level administrators, literacy coaches, instructional coaches, interventionists, and the curriculum director.
The sample for this study will be selected based on the following criterion: years in public school education with at least a minimum of ten years of experience as either a state or national board-certified teacher in reading, English, language arts, or English as a Second Language. Sample adequacy in qualitative inquiry pertains to the suitability of the sample configuration and size (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019). The sample size guidelines suggested a range between 20 and 30 interviews be adequate. The more useable data is collected from each person, the fewer participants are needed (Nodeland & Morris, 2018).
This e-Delphi study will consist of a sample size of 12 to 15 that should provide satisfactory results (Nodeland & Morris, 2018). The minimum number of participants is dependent on the study design (Beach & Traga Philippakos, 2020). To achieve data saturation, a predetermined sample size of 12–15 education experts within the rural Southwest school district will be interviewed. If saturation is not achieved with the 15 participants, the researcher will go beyond this number if needed (Sampson, 2019). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: The goal is for the data to become saturated not avoid this. Comment by Gretchen Stampley: Changed to avoid to for Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Yes, good
Significance of the Study
The significance of this proposed study will provide district leaders with guidance in deciding whether summer enrichment programs are contributory to reducing summer reading growth loss in at-risk middle school students from one scholastic year to the next. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: This sounds quantitative to me. Comment by Gretchen Stampley: changed to The significance of this proposed study will provide district leaders with guidance in deciding whether summer enrichment programs are contributory to reducing summer reading growth loss in at-risk middle school students from one scholastic year to the next.
Reaching a consensus regarding effective practices will be a foundation for developing the best strategies for program development. This study will identify different domains to help mitigate summer reading growth loss by interviewing education experts. This research can help curriculum directors and school district leaders develop a common framework for a summer program design to increase summer reading growth (O’Connell, 2020).
Nature of the Study
Qualitative research is practical and allows the researcher to create a grounded theory design based on experiences to organize the study. It explains how to apply instruments and collect data (Volley, 2020), while quantitative data provides the figures to support the study's broad general conclusions. Qualitative data provides the description and scope required to comprehend their ramifications fully. Understanding the disparities between these methodologies is critical to getting the highest outcomes from them in the questionnaires (Olsen et al., 2019). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: This paragraph needs rewritten. Just say what qualitative research is, then why that is better than quantitative for what you are doing and cite your assortations. Comment by Gretchen Stampley: revised
In comparison to other qualitative approaches, the Delphi method emphasizes organized anonymized interaction among individuals with competence on a specific subject to get a consensus in sectors such as practice, organizational decision-making, and policy (Pinho et al., 2020). Even though there are methodological guidelines in the literature for utilizing the Delphi technique with quantitative data, there is much less direction for those who want to use the Delphi technique with only qualitative data. Due to its reliance on questionnaires and digital information gathering, the Delphi technique is appropriate for developing practice theory in public and organizational settings, which assists in maintaining study costs as low as possible (Sampson, 2020).
By analyzing themes and patterns among participants, the goal is to reach a consensus regarding effective practices for increasing summer reading growth throughout the summer months in a rural school district in southwest Mississippi. Since the current E-Delphi method relies on examining an issue to understand that multiple viewpoints are incorporated and valued as suggested by (Beach & Traga Philippakos, 2020). In addition, the Delphi method allows the researcher to ask experts to respond several times to a particular problem to reach a consensus about an issue (Sampson, 2020) it is appropriate than the other available research designs. Along with this, the E-Delphi research design is suitable because the problem can be visibly defined using a panel of education professionals to forecast the future of mitigating summer reading loss as mentioned by (Schmitt et al., 2019). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Additionally, discuss why your proposal research design is more appropriate than two or three other possible research designs Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: This is where you would talk about what grounded theory is for instance and a few other designs and then conclude with your design and why it is the most appropriate.
The panel of education experts will be contacted via Survey Monkey, an internet program, to solicit and obtain a consensus from a panel of education experts. Researchers will use qualitative data analysis software instead of manual analysis to efficiently and effectively organize the data used in research today (Sampson, 2020). NVivo is a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software used to determine themes. This software implements an electronic way of expediting data grouping, sorting, and marking text to form descriptions (Schmitt et al., 2019).
A diverse group will share knowledge and opinions on strategies and techniques to increase summer reading growth. The e-Delphi method provides versatility in educational research (Sampson, 2020). In addition, the e-Delphi process allows education expert panels to provide context for a problem when there is a lack of literature (Schmitt et al., 2019).
In contrast to other qualitative research designs such as ethnography, which presents a past perspective, and case study, which provide a contemporary viewpoint, e-Delphi offers a future view (O'Connell, 2020). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Not a design
This design is most suitable because the process includes surveys for data collection, rounds of research questioning based on the pilot study for data analysis and designing of new strategies along with modification of the plan. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: This section needs organized for flow. Look at the order to address things in the alignment guide:MethodDesign - 2-3Your design and justificationData collection and instrumentationData AnalysisUse headings if you need to
Students lose academic growth attained during the school months on summer break (Beach & Traga Philippakos, 2020). The research question that will guide the foundation of this study is the prevalence of summer reading loss among students who are not exposed to or encouraged to read at home or in summer programs when school is not in session.
RQ1: What is the consensus of a panel of education professionals in identifying effective strategies to address reading loss deficiencies?
SQ2: What is the consensus of a panel of education professionals in identifying effective strategies to reduce reading loss? For example, increase the parental involvement during the summer months to reduce reading loss? Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: I see parental involvement sparingly and am unclear. I feel like you are leading the data here. Work with your URM for alignment of the purpose/problem/RQ for a delphi
The conceptual basis for this study is social learning theory and faucet theory. Some scholars advocated incorporating existing theories into the design of a conceptual framework (O’Connell, 2020).
Social learning theory informs the study by explaining human behavior through continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Social learning theory frames this study by explaining how children imitate modeled behavior by observing others, the environment, and the mass media (Sampson, 2020). At the same time, the faucet theory informs the study by expounding on how children access learning and reading materials during the academic year.
According to the theory, children from low socioeconomic families perform poorly academically compared to children from middle-class and wealthy families while focusing on differences in schools and home environments (Beach & Traga Philippakos, 2020). The school year is illustrated when the faucet of resources and guidance flows, but the faucet turns off throughout the summer months (Pinho et al., 2020). Students have access to quality programs, educators, support, and enrichment during school. However, when students are not in school during the summer months, the flow of resources is turned off, leaving economically disadvantaged students particularly vulnerable to summer learning loss (Sampson, 2020). In addition, U.S. students living in poverty regress over the summer break in the skills and knowledge gained during the school year. A researcher researched the faucet theory to create an enrichment, literacy-focused program that made summer learning equitable for students (O'Connell, 2020). As a result, the school turned on the faucet of resources, and students' literacy growth was encouraged during the summer months (p. 26). It is believed that the "faucet theory" can explain seasonal patterns. Once school had been in session, the asset faucet had been turned on for every student, and everyone acquired it equitably; when the education system was not in session, the asset faucet had been turned off. During the summers, families from low socioeconomic backgrounds were unable to compensate for the assets provided by the school, and their children's accomplishments plateaued or even declined. On the other hand, middle-class family members could compensate for the school's assets to a considerable extent, allowing their children's pace of growth, albeit at a slower rate (Sampson, 2020). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Some of this information can be moved to chapter 2 as appropriate. In this section you are not talking about other studies, you are providing an overview of the foundations of the two theories you are using to frame your study and including the seminal authors. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Not seeing any direct quotes? Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Pronouns can be used to take the place of proper nouns to avoid repetition in sentences or paragraphs; however, sometimes pronouns can be vague and confusing to the reader. Pronouns such as this, that, it, they, and these can be vague if they follow multiple subjects or objects. It must be clear to which subject or object a pronoun refers or readers might get confused. To fix vague pronouns, either specifically state what you mean or combine sentences to avoid using pronouns. Below are three examples of vague pronouns and revisions of them.
Social Learning Theory
Several scholars based their research on Albert Bandura's social learning theory from a social context to understand how social learning theory can manifest in a specific format in higher education (Sampson, 2020). Social learning theory (SLT) consists of four steps: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation (Beach & Traga Philippakos, 2020). Social learning theory focuses on the dynamics of a relationship between the model and observer. Anyone's behavior directly results from cognitive processes and the environment through social circumstances and events. For example, children observe actions in their environment and mimic the actions that contribute to reading growth lost during the summer (Sampson, 2020). Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification, is when writers assign human characteristics to something non-human. Anthropomorphism can be an effective technique if you are writing poetry or fiction and you want to be creative, but writers often use it accidentally when they incorrectly choose certain verbs for inanimate subjects. Below are three examples of anthropomorphism and revisions of them.
Social modeling and illustrations are highly effective educational tools. When children see the beneficial results of an activity, they are more likely to perform that activity themselves. If they see adverse implications, they are more likely to refrain from engaging in that behavior. Distinctive, new, and diverse situations frequently pique students' interests and make them stand out (Olsen et al., 2019). Students are more inclined to listen if they see certain students paying close attention.
Consequently, teachers employ punishment and reward systems to enable students to learn from the illustrations of others. Social learning theory has a solid foundation in promoting self-efficacy through constructive feedback. Children who receive positive reinforcement have general confidence in themselves and their abilities; this stands out in their minds, and they want to repeat this behavior (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019).
Definition of Terms
Achievement Gap. There is a statistically significant disparity in academic achievement between students grouped by race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. Comment by TIFFANI BATEMAN: Every definition needs cited, they are not bold
Faucet Theory. It describes the phenomenon of a lack of resources for children from economically disadvantaged homes. (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019).
Learning loss. Specific or general loss of knowledge and skills or reversals in academic progress, most commonly due to extended gaps or discontinuities in a student’s education (Beach & Traga Philippakos, 2020).
Socioeconomic status (SES). Measures of social group prestige, typically based on income and education (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019).
Summer reading loss. Children’s reading development deteriorates during summer vacation when children are absent from the classroom and do not engage in formal literacy programs (Chin et al., 2020).
Summer slide, summer setback, or summer drift. Describes learning loss that occurs during breaks from school (Hillier, 2021).
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
Participating in an e-Delphi study provides panel experts with an occasion to express their opinions and knowledge (Chin et al., 2020). In addition,...