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your opening paragraph and background of the study or problem.
to the Doctoral Phase 2 – Precis section found in the CDS Dissertation Guide on
the CDS Dissertation Guide on background of the problem.
Note: The opening paragraph/statement should bring the reader into the topic; the background of the study/problem should frame the problem and identify the gaps and/or deficiencies from prior research. It is important to present why the study should be pursued and for whom the study is important.
This section should be 3-4 pages long.
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1 Running Head: PROSPECTUS Prospectus Gretchen Carter University of Phoenix DOC/714S: Symposium I Dr. Liz Young October 26, 2020 Prospectus A Consensus Review of Strategies and Techniques Using Best Practices to Decrease Summer Reading Growth Loss Gretchen Stampley 1. Program of Study Educational Leadership 2. Problem Statement Proponents of the faucet theory believe literacy gaps occur during the summer (McDaniel et al., 2017). The problem is many students do not have parental support during the summer reading activities resulting in a loss of reading growth. 3. Purpose Statement The purpose of the proposed qualitative Delphi study will be to gain consensus among education experts on strategies to reduce reading growth loss throughout the summer months in a school district in southwest Mississippi. 4. Methodology The method for proposed study will be qualitative. The researcher selected a qualitative research method approach for the research process because a qualitative research approach promotes exploration of a phenomenon within its context using a variety of data sources. This method allows the researcher to answer the research questions in this proposed study. The research design is a Delphi study. There will be a group of about twelve subject matter experts that will be asked a series of 3-rounds of questions. It is anticipated that after the third round the experts will reach a consensus of opinion on how they will enhance the summer reading experience for At-risk children. 5. Research Population and Sample and Other Data Sources. The population for this study will be selected based on the following criterion: years in public school education with at least a minimal of ten years of experience as either a state or national board certified Reading, English, Language Arts, or English as a Second Language Educator, state certified administrator such as a school superintendent, principal, assistant principal, or curriculum director. The sample size for this study will be twelve participants. This sample size of participants was chosen by the researcher because the sample size should adequately represent the pool of judgements (Hsu & Sanford, 2007). It is the aim of this study to gain a consensus of at least two techniques that could be implemented to reduce reading deficiencies during summer months. The intended panel selection will be veteran educators from Mississippi. Archival data that will be incorporated into the study will be previous strategies and techniques that have been implemented to address reading deficiencies during summer months. The sources of this data will be derived from the selected panelists. 6. Significance of Study The significance of this proposed study is to address specific techniques that can be implements to address reading deficiencies and improve parental involvement during summer months. The potential benefits of this study could yield summer reading programs or effective strategies that may enhance literacy among public school students of all ages. This study is important because it focuses on a minority group and it could positively change the outcome of an entire community from low socioeconomic to medium socioeconomic and the enhance the emphasis on education. This study could contribute to current and future research by identifying effective strategies for parental involvement and reducing reading losses. The results of this research may ass to leadership knowledge and literature because it is understood that at certain levels of education, parental involvement significantly decreases. The consensus of the panelists, when implemented, if proven effective, will be useful for future administrators. 7. Research Questions RQ1: What is the consensus of opinion of the experts on the panel to identify effective strategies that can be implemented throughout the summer to address reading loss deficiencies? SQ2: What is the consensus of opinion of the experts on the panel to identify as effective strategies that can increase parental involvement during summer months to reduce reading loss? 8. Topic Literature Alexander, K., Entwisle, D., & Olson, L. (2014). Lasting consequences of the summer learning gap. Sociological Review, 72(2), 167-180. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240707200202. This source confirms declines in academic achievement during summer break is more prevalent and consistent for students from low socioeconomic backgrounds compared to students from middle and higher socioecononic classes. This source supports the problem statement by affirming that literacy gaps occur in summer months. Entwisle, D.R., Alexander, K.L., & Olson, L.S. (2001). Keep the faucet flowing: Summer learning and home environment. American Educator, 25(3),10–15, 47. This source explains the faucet theory in detail for a specific school in a specified location. This source supports the problem that students read and grow academically when school is in session but when summer arrives, the growth discontinues and potentially digresses. Borman, G., Benson, J., & Overman, L. (2005). Families, schools, and summer learning. The Elementary School Journal, 106(2), 131-150. https://doi.org/10.1086/499195. This source suggested that parental expectations, learning activities in the home, and parental effort more generally did not explain much variation in summer achievement but suggested that parental effort to promote regular attendance in summer school, though, did avert summer learning losses. Campbell, L.O., Sutter, C.C., & Lambie, G.W. (2019). An investigation of the summer learning effect on fourth grade students’ reading scores. Reading Psychology, 40(5), 465-490. https:/doi.org/10.1080/02702711.2019.1629516. This source indicated that students in the lowest two quartiles made achievement gains over summer while these same students evidenced limited reading growth throughout the academic year. In contrast, students in the upper two quartiles evidenced reading losses over summer, although evidencing continuous reading growth throughout the school year. Capotost, L. (2019). Scaffolding choice, increasing access: A summer initiative to promote middle school students’ book reading. Reading Horizons, 58(5), 71-85. This source confirms that the problem exists of summer reading loss growth but also suggests that many students do not read any books during summer months due to limited book access and difficulties self-selecting books. Gray, C., & Macblain, S. (2015). Learning theories in childhood. (2nd ed.). Sage. This source highlights the strengths and weaknesses of early learning and key behavioral, cognitive, and social theorists and explains how different approaches impact the learning environment. Lenhoff, S., Somers, C., Tenelshof, B., & Bender, T. (2020). The potential for multi-site literacy interventions to reduce summer slide among low-performing students. In Children and Youth Services Review, 110, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104806. This source suggests that short-duration, high-intensity tutoring may help to prevent learning loss in literacy among a population with high rates of socio-economic disadvantage and low initial performance. McDaniel, S. C., McLeod, R., Carter, C. L., & Robinson, C. (2017). Supplemental summer literacy instruction: Implications for preventing summer reading loss. Reading Psychology, 38(7), 673-686. https://doi.org/10.1080/02702711.2017.1333070. This source confirms that summer reading loss is a prevalent problem that occurs primarily for students who are not exposed to or encouraged to read at home or in summer programs when school is out and implies the need for efficient summer reading programs. O'Connell, K. M. (2020). Making summer learning equitable for students in a rural, title I school district: Turning on the faucet of resources . The Interactive Journal of Global Leadership, 1(1), 1-32. This source explored summer learning loss and the effect of summer resources on students’ literacy growth using the faucet theory. Volley, R. (2020). Summer reading loss: A program evaluation on the impact of a summer school program on reducing summer reading loss in high-poverty middle school students in an urban school district (Publication No. 27835075) [Doctoral dissertation, Gardner-Webb University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. This source evaluated a summer program and the effects of reducing summer reading loss in high-poverty middle school students. 9. Topic Theories Self Efficacy Theory Schunk (2003) believed that perceived self-efficacy or students’ personal beliefs about their capabilities to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels, plays an important role in their motivation and learning. Zimmerman (1997) suggested that how students’ perceive self-efficacy directly and indirectly influences their ability to gain skills and learn. Self-efficacy influences self-regulation in learners (Bong & Skaalvik, 2003; Pintrich & Schunk, 2002). Bandura (1995, 1997) suggests that an individuals’ perceived self-efficacy is a crucial component in human functioning. Students with high self-efficacy are more likely to engage in self-regulatory processes including: goal setting, self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and effective strategy use (Zimmerman, 2000). Bandura et al., (1996) concluded that students’ belief in their self-efficacy is a great predictor for engagement and accomplishment in school tasks. Self-efficacy, affords students the ability to make an effect, to make things happen which ultimately determines their future successes. Faucet Theory Entwisle et al., (2001) based their research on the faucet theory seeking to explain why poor children do worse academically than children from middle-class and wealthy families while focusing on differences in schools and differences in home environments. The faucet theory indicates that U.S. students of poverty regress over the summer break in the skills and knowledge gained during the school year. O’Connell (2020) conducted research using the faucet theory to create an enrichment, literacy-focused program that made summer learning equitable for students. The faucet of resources was turned on and students’ literacy growth was encouraged during the summer months (p. 26). 10. Research Data Collection Strategy This study will require the use of at least three rounds of survey questionnaires or interviews to be emailed or recorded telephone calls. The participants will be anonymous to the study but not the researcher. The process will require repeat evaluation of responses to determine potential themes, patterns, and commonalities among participants. Once the first round of questionnaires or surveys are returned or answered, round two will begin and focus on areas of agreement, disagreement, and additional effective practices. Round three will follow a similar format as round two until a consensus is reached regarding effective practices or techniques. 11. Potential Dissertation Chair Information I look forward to your input and expertise in continuing to develop this dissertation! References Alexander, K., Entwisle, D., & Olson, L. (2014). Lasting consequences of the summer learning gap. Sociological Review, 72(2), 167-180. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240707200202. Bandura, A. (1995). Self-efficacy. In A. S. R. Manstead & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Blackwell encyclopedia of social psychology (pp.