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These are two discussion questions. Read and answer them. 1. Understanding theory in social context is an essential part of the study of criminology. As discussed in Chapter 2, describe in detail the work of Cesare Lombroso and the theory of the criminal man. Secondly, explain how Lombroso’s research has influenced the current study of crime. 2. What is meant by “collective efficacy,” and how is it an expansion on the Chicago School of Criminology? Give an example of how criminal justice agencies are currently working to improve collective efficacy in a specific geographical area. This is one of my classmates answer to question number one. You can read it and get an idea on how to answer question number one, unread posts Darilyn Monk posted Jan 31, 2020 12:17 PM Subscribe The positivist school assumes that some people are born with a certain set of characteristics that make them destined to be criminals. “Lombroso’s theory of the criminal man was the birth of the positivist theory” (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2019, p. 18). He believed that a person’s physical attributes were indicators and predictors of whether or not the person would possess criminal tendencies. He believed some people were mentally born to be criminals, and he believed that physically, they looked like criminals. Lombroso further believed that some people are born inferior which made them destined to embrace criminal behavior. “Cesare Lombroso (1836-1909) is referred to as the father of modern criminology” (Lilly, Cullen & Ball, 2019, p. 12). He is considered the father because he is the first to examine criminology by examining attributes of the individual offender. His theory is now considered antiquated and outdated, but unfortunately, many still hold on to some of his ideas. Some people allow personal biases to dictate what they think of others, based on how they look. Some people allow cultural and ethnic differences to drive their opinions of entire groups of people which can often lead to false assumptions about those people. In opposition to Lombroso’s theory, many criminals have been captured that look pleasant. They have no facial distortions and no unusual or negative biological characteristics. It is important to point out that Lombroso also considered many animals as being natural born criminals because he considered them violent predators. Some of the attributes that he used to characterize criminals are directly taken from the attributes of the animals he deemed criminal. Fortunately, many people realize this was not a good theory. This theory represents stereotyping at its worst. Darilyn Monk References Lilly, J. R., Cullen, F. T., and Ball, R.A. (2019). Criminological theory: Context and consequences. 7th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.