# no need to do case study 5

no need to do case study 5

Answered 2 days AfterOct 12, 2023

## Answer To: no need to do case study 5

Dr Insiyah R. answered on Oct 15 2023
Case Study 1    1
Case Study 2    3
Case Study 3    5
Case Study 4    7
Case Study 6    9
Case Study 1
To calculate the amount of drug that does not get absorbed from a single tablet swallowed, we can start with the total amount of active ingredient in the tablet, which is 250 mg, and then consider the bioavailability and the hepatic first-pass effect.
First, calculate the amount of drug absorbed in the small intestines:
Amount absorbed = Total amount * Bioavailability
Amount absorbed = 250 mg * 0.32 = 80 mg
Now,
calculate the amount that undergoes hepatic first-pass effect:
Amount undergoing hepatic first-pass = Amount absorbed * Fraction undergoing hepatic first-pass
Amount undergoing hepatic first-pass = 80 mg * 0.42 = 33.6 mg
Finally, calculate the amount that does not get absorbed:
Amount not absorbed = Total amount - Amount absorbed
Amount not absorbed = 250 mg - 33.6 mg = 216.4 mg
So, the amount of the drug that does not get absorbed from a single tablet swallowed is 216.4 mg.
The type of drug interaction between the active ingredient of John's medication and the other compound added to inhibit kidney transporters is likely a "Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction."
Rationale: In this case, the added compound affects the way the active ingredient is metabolized or excreted in the body, specifically by inhibiting kidney transporters responsible for the tubular secretion of the drug. This alteration in the drug's pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) is a characteristic of pharmacokinetic drug interactions.

The combination of the two ingredients can be advantageous for John, depending on the specific goals of his treatment and the intended effects of the combination. Here are some potential advantages and justifications:
a. Reduced excretion: By inhibiting the transporters responsible for the tubular secretion of John's medication, the combined product can lead to a lower rate of drug excretion by the kidneys. This means that more of the drug will remain in John's system for a longer duration, potentially increasing its therapeutic effectiveness.
b. Enhanced bioavailability: Since the combination does not alter the drug's bioavailability from the small intestines (as indicated in the original information), it can ensure that a larger fraction of the orally administered drug is available for absorption and utilization.
c. Better therapeutic outcomes: With a lower rate of drug excretion and enhanced bioavailability, John may experience more consistent and prolonged therapeutic effects from the medication.
However, it's important to consider potential disadvantages or side effects associated with the combination, as well as any contraindications or risks. Additionally, the overall benefit will depend on the specific medical condition and the intended treatment goals for John. Therefore, consultation with a healthcare professional is crucial to assess the appropriateness and safety of this combination therapy for John's individual case.
Case Study 2
Answer (1) Central and peripheral effects of alcohol:
- Effect of alcohol on GABAergic or glutamatergic synapses: Alcohol enhances the inhibitory effect of GABAergic synapses while inhibiting glutamatergic synapses. It increases GABA receptor activity, leading to sedation and reduced anxiety, and it inhibits glutamate receptors, which can result in impaired cognitive function and motor coordination.
- Effect of alcohol on neuronal activity: Alcohol depresses neuronal activity by slowing down neurotransmission. This can lead to impaired judgment, reduced coordination, and cognitive deficits.
- Effect of alcohol on intellectual and motor performance: Alcohol impairs intellectual and motor performance by disrupting normal brain function. It can result in decreased reaction time, impaired judgment, poor decision-making, and loss of motor coordination, all of which can contribute to accidents and impaired performance.
- Effect of alcohol on water homeostasis: Alcohol is a diuretic, meaning it increases urine production and can lead to dehydration. This disrupts water homeostasis in the body and can result in electrolyte imbalances.
- Effect of alcohol on temperature regulation: Alcohol can cause vasodilation, leading to a sensation of warmth, but it can also lead to increased heat loss from the body. This can impair the body's ability to regulate temperature, potentially causing hypothermia in cold environments.
Joanne's combination of alcohol with her medication Prozac likely led to a severe adverse reaction, as combining alcohol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like Prozac can increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, which can manifest as muscle cramps, tremors, fever, fast heartbeats, confusion, and agitation. This underscores the importance of adhering to medication instructions and avoiding alcohol when contraindicated.
Answer (2) Both ethyl alcohol and benzodiazepines enhance the inhibitory effects of GABAergic synapses by binding to GABA-A receptors, leading to increased inhibitory neurotransmission.
Answer (3) The condition Joanne developed after taking the tablet recommended by her neighbour is...
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