no need to do case study 5

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no need to do case study 5


BIOL122 End-of-semester worksheet Semester 2, 2023 1 End-of-semester worksheet Instructions • To identify which question you answer, please write Q1/1 answer…, Q1/2 answer…., and do not repeat/copy the questions. This is requested to ensure you do not generate a high similarity score in Turnitin. Note that if we cannot unambiguously identify the questions your answers address, we will not be able to mark your submission. • To show your understanding of the content, and that you are answering the questions asked (rather than adding all the information you can find about a topic), make sure that your answers are concise and to the point. Make sure you follow instructions regarding the length of the answer – if a question states that it is to be 3 sentences long, than assessors will not read/mark more than three sentences. These sentences need to be grammatically correct and not 7 sentences for the price of 1. • The questions presented in your worksheet require you to reflect on and piece together information you have learnt throughout the semester. To get full marks, you need to clearly demonstrate that you understood the learning material and are able to apply the acquired knowledge. When marking, we are looking for connections to be clearly stated, unambiguously written, and well-reasoned. We expect high-quality and convincing writing, where the meaning is clear, relevant terminology is used, and which reflects engagement with the unit. Do not be afraid of using dot points wherever you can; simple, concise, and clear writing is far superior to a word salad or to several paragraphs without essence. • All questions can be answered based on the learning material that we have discussed in the LEO modules and workshops, and if that is where your information comes from, no referencing is needed. However, if you present any information that has not been written or communicated to you by BIOL122 staff, you must indicate its source. Without adequately indicating where such information has been sourced from, it will not be considered when marking. Hints/feedback from previous semesters • Take care that your answers have the expected level of depth—it will not be enough, for example, to state that ‘drug X decreases blood pressure’; we expect you to explain the mechanism of action and describe the chain of events leading to the desired/known effects. • Any form of academic misconduct (e.g., plagiarism, collusion, or poor paraphrasing) will be subject to academic misconduct investigations resulting in mark deductions, cancellation of the assessment task, and/or disciplinary hearings. In addition to the formal penalties as an outcome of the academic misconduct investigation, is the additional consequence of results delayed for weeks as the academic integrity investigations take time. • We are particularly keen on seeing evidence of your critical thinking skills. For full marks, you are expected to answer all questions from Case studies 1–4, and then, depending on the topic you created your vodcast presentation on, you need to complete either Case Study 5 or Case study 6. Therefore, • If your vodcast covered diabetes, you should complete Case studies 1–4 and Case study 6. • If your vodcast covered cancer, you should complete Case studies 1–4 and Case study 5. • If you have not submitted vodcast presentation, you can choose either Case study 5 or 6 presented in this worksheet. The first line of your submission should state the topic of your vodcast presentation. If you do not complete the appropriate case study as instructed above, then you will be awarded no marks for case study 5 or 6. BIOL122 End-of-semester worksheet Semester 2, 2023 2 Case Study 1 (3 questions, 5 marks total) John is given a newly developed, experimental medication. The medication is taken orally, each tablet contains 250 mg of active ingredient, which is absorbed from the small intestines, and has a bioavailability of 0.32. It is also known that, of the active ingredient that enters the hepatic vein, 42% undergoes hepatic first pass effect. (1) Based on the parameters provided, calculate the amount of drug that does not get absorbed from a single tablet swallowed. Show your calculations and explain your thinking. (3 marks) This medication is excreted by the kidneys, and the research team responsible for the development of this new drug found that the rate of its excretion was too high. Therefore, they combined the drug with another ingredient, which inhibited the transporters in the kidney that were responsible for the tubular secretion of Johns’s drug. (2) Name the type of drug interaction between the active ingredient of Johns’s medication and the other compound the developers added to the final product and give your rationale. (1 mark) (3) Explain if the combination of the two ingredients is advantageous for John and justify your answer. (1 mark) Case Study 2 (7 questions, 20 marks total) Joanne is a 26-year-old former elite netball player, who had been playing in a top-tier netball league until about a year ago, when her successful life was shattered by a life-changing accident. After a particularly well- fought and prestigious win over their main netball rivals, both Joanne and her de facto drank a lot of alcohol and snorted some cocaine to celebrate Joanne’s team’s success. Regrettably, they also decided to go for a joyride, during which they did not care about speed limits, traffic regulations, or anything at all. They were travelling at high speed south of Ballina, where Joanne’s partner, Stephanie, who was driving the car, lost control of the vehicle, veered off the road, and hit a massive gum tree at a speed of 130 km/h. Stephanie was thrown out of the vehicle and lost her life before help arrived. Joanne survived, but she sustained severe lower abdominal and leg injuries, which resulted in her right leg to be amputated above the knee joint and her uterus and ovaries being removed. One year after the accident, Joanne is still undergoing counselling and physiotherapy, and she has not yet managed to get used to her prosthetic leg. In addition, she has nightmares, feels that she cannot create meaningful connections with anyone, can’t forget the accident, and got clinically depressed. She has also developed bulimia, and to cope with her pain and sorrow, she tends to drink at least half a bottle of Jack Daniel’s every day, which seems to help her with her insomnia, too. She cannot quit drinking even though she has just started to take Prozac (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and was explicitly told by her therapist that she should never mix this medication with alcohol. However, she feels that her drinking should not matter at all because her medication does not seem to work, anyway: although she started this new treatment exactly 2 weeks ago, she has not noticed any change in her condition whatsoever. Joanne complains about the lack of effect of her new medication to her neighbour, Caitlin, who has been treated for depression as well. Unknown to Joanne, Caitlin was prescribed with an anti-depressant BIOL122 End-of-semester worksheet Semester 2, 2023 3 medication with a different mechanism of action to that of Joanne’s. Caitlin mentions that besides helping with her depressive symptoms, she’s also lost some weight because — as per her GP’s instructions — she is no longer allowed to consume any vintage cheese and red wine she loves so much. After a short discussion, Caitlin suggests to Joanne that she should be trying her tablets. Joanne thinks there is nothing to lose in trying, and combines Caitlin’s red, round, film-coated tablets with her own in the hope that her depression would get better. Eight hours later, Joanne develops severe muscle cramps and tremor, becomes febrile, and complains about fast heart beats. The arriving paramedics note cardiac arrhythmia and find Joanne confused and profoundly agitated. (1) By addressing the points specified below, describe some central and peripheral effects of alcohol. (5 marks) Your answer should address all of the following points along with adequate rationale for your answer. None of your answers must be no longer than two sentences per point. Answers will not be assessed after this. • The effect of alcohol on either GABAergic or glutamatergic synapses. • The effect of alcohol on neuronal activity. • The effect of alcohol on intellectual and motor performance. • The effect of alcohol on water homeostasis. • The effect of alcohol on temperature regulation. (2) In a single sentence, describe the similarity between the mechanism of action of ethyl alcohol and benzodiazepines. (1 mark) (3) Name and briefly describe the aetiology of the condition Joanne developed when she took the tablet recommended by her neighbour. (3 marks) (4) Name the most likely class of medication Joanne got from her neighbour and describe it mechanism of action. (1 mark) Joanne is now out of hospital and her depression has got better. She is of Caucasian origin, not pregnant, 178 cm tall, has a body weight of 78 kg, and her waist circumference is 85 cm. (5) Discuss the implications of Joanne’s anthropometric parameters. In particular, your answer should address if—based on her anthropometric data and clinical history—she is at risk of cardiovascular diseases. Your answer must not be longer than 4 sentences. Answers will not be assessed after this. (3 marks) Six months ago, Joanne developed atrial fibrillation, which—despite warnings from her medical practitioner—she chose to ignore. One day she experienced a sudden dizziness and nausea, which was quickly followed by a profound weakness in her right arm to the point that she could not move it at all. When she looked in the mirror, her face was asymmetrical, and her mouth showed drooping on the right BIOL122 End-of-semester worksheet Semester 2, 2023 4 side. In addition, she was unable to speak: although she tried to formulate words and cry out for help, she could not articulate at all. It was a frightening experience. Joanne was preparing for the worst, but—to her surprise—this awful incident was over in about 9 minutes. By this time, she was able to call for help, and the arriving paramedics did not identify any abnormalities apart from her atrial fibrillation. She was taken for a neurological examination and a brain scan, and neither of those established anything noteworthy. (6) Name the condition Joanne experienced before the paramedics arrived and describe its most likely aetiology. Provide a convincing justification for your answer; note that your answer cannot be more than 4 sentences. Answers will not be assessed after this. (4 marks) (7) The attending physician ordered a low-dose acetylsalicylic acid treatment for Joanne. Explain the rationale for the physician decision. Your answer should refer to the mechanism of action of the prescribed medication, and it should also make it clear how this medication (and its mechanism of action) benefits Joanne. Your answer must not be longer than 3 sentences. Answers will not be assessed after this. (3 marks) Case Study 3 (6 questions, 15 marks total) Sarah is a 45-year-old woman, who first experienced bilateral joint pain and stiffness in her fingers, wrists, and knees about three years ago. Initially, she dismissed these symptoms as signs of getting older or overexertion due to her physically demanding job. However, her symptoms have worsened over time. The range of motion in her joints has decreased significantly, and she is experiencing intense fatigue as well as flu-like symptoms. Sarah's doctor collected a comprehensive health history and conducted a physical assessment. She also ordered a series of blood tests to establish whether rheumatoid factor (RF) and c-reactive protein (CRP) were present in Sarah’s blood. Sarah’s test results showed elevated levels of both RF and CRP, which were consistent with her clinical symptoms of joint swelling and pain. After Sarah’s diagnosis, she was referred to a specialist, who prescribed disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), including methotrexate, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to manage her pain and inflammation. Sarah was also prescribed corticosteroids to provide immediate relief from the pain and inflammation and prevent flare ups. (1) Identify the condition Sarah has been diagnosed with. In your answer, you must provide 3 clinical findings that have led you to this conclusion. (2 marks) (2) By making meaningful references to the pathophysiology of the condition you identified above, discuss why the range of motion in Sarah’s joints has decreased significantly. (2 marks) (3) Discuss the significance of elevated levels of rheumatoid factor and c-reactive protein in Sarah’s blood. Discuss the relationship between these two factors and Sarah’s condition. (4 marks) BIOL122 End-of-semester worksheet Semester 2, 2023 5
Answered 2 days AfterOct 12, 2023

Answer To: no need to do case study 5

Dr Insiyah R. answered on Oct 15 2023
28 Votes
Case Study 1    1
Case Study 2    3
Case Study 3    5
Case Study 4    7
Case Study 6    9
Case Study 1
Answer (1)
To calculate the amount of drug that does not get absorbed from a single tablet swallowed, we can start with the total amount of active ingredient in the tablet, which is 250 mg, and then consider the bioavailability and the hepatic first-pass effect.
First, calculate the amount of drug absorbed in the small intestines:
Amount absorbed = Total amount * Bioavailability
Amount absorbed = 250 mg * 0.32 = 80 mg
Now,
calculate the amount that undergoes hepatic first-pass effect:
Amount undergoing hepatic first-pass = Amount absorbed * Fraction undergoing hepatic first-pass
Amount undergoing hepatic first-pass = 80 mg * 0.42 = 33.6 mg
Finally, calculate the amount that does not get absorbed:
Amount not absorbed = Total amount - Amount absorbed
Amount not absorbed = 250 mg - 33.6 mg = 216.4 mg
So, the amount of the drug that does not get absorbed from a single tablet swallowed is 216.4 mg.
Answer (2)
The type of drug interaction between the active ingredient of John's medication and the other compound added to inhibit kidney transporters is likely a "Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction."
Rationale: In this case, the added compound affects the way the active ingredient is metabolized or excreted in the body, specifically by inhibiting kidney transporters responsible for the tubular secretion of the drug. This alteration in the drug's pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) is a characteristic of pharmacokinetic drug interactions.

Answer (3)
The combination of the two ingredients can be advantageous for John, depending on the specific goals of his treatment and the intended effects of the combination. Here are some potential advantages and justifications:
Advantages:
a. Reduced excretion: By inhibiting the transporters responsible for the tubular secretion of John's medication, the combined product can lead to a lower rate of drug excretion by the kidneys. This means that more of the drug will remain in John's system for a longer duration, potentially increasing its therapeutic effectiveness.
b. Enhanced bioavailability: Since the combination does not alter the drug's bioavailability from the small intestines (as indicated in the original information), it can ensure that a larger fraction of the orally administered drug is available for absorption and utilization.
c. Better therapeutic outcomes: With a lower rate of drug excretion and enhanced bioavailability, John may experience more consistent and prolonged therapeutic effects from the medication.
However, it's important to consider potential disadvantages or side effects associated with the combination, as well as any contraindications or risks. Additionally, the overall benefit will depend on the specific medical condition and the intended treatment goals for John. Therefore, consultation with a healthcare professional is crucial to assess the appropriateness and safety of this combination therapy for John's individual case.
Case Study 2
Answer (1) Central and peripheral effects of alcohol:
- Effect of alcohol on GABAergic or glutamatergic synapses: Alcohol enhances the inhibitory effect of GABAergic synapses while inhibiting glutamatergic synapses. It increases GABA receptor activity, leading to sedation and reduced anxiety, and it inhibits glutamate receptors, which can result in impaired cognitive function and motor coordination.
- Effect of alcohol on neuronal activity: Alcohol depresses neuronal activity by slowing down neurotransmission. This can lead to impaired judgment, reduced coordination, and cognitive deficits.
- Effect of alcohol on intellectual and motor performance: Alcohol impairs intellectual and motor performance by disrupting normal brain function. It can result in decreased reaction time, impaired judgment, poor decision-making, and loss of motor coordination, all of which can contribute to accidents and impaired performance.
- Effect of alcohol on water homeostasis: Alcohol is a diuretic, meaning it increases urine production and can lead to dehydration. This disrupts water homeostasis in the body and can result in electrolyte imbalances.
- Effect of alcohol on temperature regulation: Alcohol can cause vasodilation, leading to a sensation of warmth, but it can also lead to increased heat loss from the body. This can impair the body's ability to regulate temperature, potentially causing hypothermia in cold environments.
Joanne's combination of alcohol with her medication Prozac likely led to a severe adverse reaction, as combining alcohol with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like Prozac can increase the risk of serotonin syndrome, which can manifest as muscle cramps, tremors, fever, fast heartbeats, confusion, and agitation. This underscores the importance of adhering to medication instructions and avoiding alcohol when contraindicated.
Answer (2) Both ethyl alcohol and benzodiazepines enhance the inhibitory effects of GABAergic synapses by binding to GABA-A receptors, leading to increased inhibitory neurotransmission.
Answer (3) The condition Joanne developed after taking the tablet recommended by her neighbour is...
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