Answer To: Mintzberg is of the opinion that in achieving an organisational strategy you get different types of...
Rachit answered on Sep 26 2022
HUMAN ACTION AND ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY
CONCEPT OF EMERGENCE: AN OVERVIEW
In the following discussion, we will understand the meaning of emergence, how it impacts the way things happen in teams, understanding the HOW’s of emergence by understanding the two major factors that drive the emergence in any pattern. These factors are “Organisation” and “Management”
We will try to address the reasons behind the decision taken by leaders and the action or a reaction that could cause the reasons behind the emergence.
The word emergence has been quite a surprise for many organisations as a whole and they had to pivot their execution multiple times during the course of execution. So what is this Emergence? It is a set of actions, or behaviour, which are consistent over time, a pattern realised which was originally unplanned and was not expressly intended in the original plan ( Henry Mitzberg). It is what one starts to create is not what is actually created.
Emergence as observed always comes during the course of action. These actions are the result of planned execution by companies often termed as Strategies. The strategies can be plainly understood as stepwise planning to approach an organisation vision. As there could be times of uncertainties, dynamic approach and paradigm shifts are often observed and hence there are multiple strategies being executed leading to various emergences.
Emergences differs from growth, evolution or a pursuit of new direction. It is rather referred to as a new direction created out of a chaos or instability and change. These emergences could me irreversible most of the time.
The next question is how to identify these emergences and the science behind it? These emergence would be broadly bucketed into the category of “organisation” and “Management”
SELF-ORGANISATION AND MANEGEMENT
To understand self-organisation, we may have to first understand the word organisation, its know-how’s of processes etc. Organisation is a group of autonomous people working together for a common objective. They are regarded as a part of the system who would function at the various layers of hierarchy. They may plan their leaning and formulate strategies in their teams thereby deriving different aspect of their identities. These autonomous individuals may have different cognitivism, constructivism and humanism yet they are called a team which is the cause of the debate. While basic fundamental of planning and executing a strategy would be resolution of all conflicts, respecting all diversities thereby syncing everyone together in a harmony, the learning fundamental would have on the ground experience of facing challenges due to causality theory creating emergences. This leads to a debate that people who plan the strategy claim to give the science behind it while people who execute the strategy feels that its more of an art. These two theories could forma natural science of people working together. To call it a science, there has to be evidence, method and logic around it, let’s deep dive them to understand the same.
When it comes to an evidence in a non-tangible way without any bias but has the same result on each execution just like a laboratory test, we tend to call it an evidence. To get these evidence would have a different meaning when we move from a natural science like laboratory tests to human phycology and evidence is benchmarked against different data points. In labs / medical world there are double blind tests in a controlled environment with same results which cannot be applied to human strategy function as a evidence. The current problems in evidences are
1. The performance benchmarks of sales, profits, market share would give an idea but may create a subjective bias as only we need to do qualitative tests along with quantifying the data and to prove sanity , it should involve a large sample set.
2. To carry out survey and opinions often termed in research but are quite subjective in nature and they form an opinion from a large set of sample.
3. Past Precedence’s and case studies often gives a qualitative and subjective approach toward future apprehensions but would nudge against the same condition to be applied. It is often a subjective approach rather than objective approach.
The ways at which management studies have moved away from conceptualising organisations as system. Instead they are perceived as interaction between individuals over the time and word “system” has been considered a “Taboo”.
Given the few definition of system variation, system as a whole is a complex nature of defining the way a certain set of processes has to be followed. A system cannot have an emergence as emergence are always perceived by individuals who thinks but system doesn’t allow you think and let you to act on a certain set of models.
CONFLICT AND DIVERSITY
The organisation is an inclusive place where people from all walks of life together form a system and based on the original thought of self-motivation versus syncing with one common goal, it is extremely important that all individual must be respected and guidelines for conflict resolution must be shared so as to provide an amicable ways of working together.
Conflict is a difference of opinion between two sets of people usually arrives from pursuit of personal agendas and could kept into 2 categories: Instrumental or Substantive
Instrumental conflicts arrives from unclear communication, different priorities and a lack of clear division of responsibilities whereas Substantive conflicts results from poor allocation of resources, difference between ends and means, distribution of rewards and recognitions, different policies and procedures. Rahim argues that managers should bring right amount of conflict on the table to promote the innovation rather than what could cause a dysfunction.
Managers can control conflict to change the way an organisation efficiency can be determined. The approach to conflict is determined by ways to which company handles its diversity. Racism laws, sexual harassment cases are few expensive litigation that company wants to save itself from and hence a diverse culture is being embraced with right policies and procedure.
MINTZBERG THEORY OF EMERGENCE.
In our above views, strategy is realisation of planned moves, evolved patterns or perceived actions during learning As per Mintzberg(1990) theory of strategy is
1. Formulation of ideal process of thought followed in a controlled manner of implementation- Once the strategy is formed, it should be executed phase wise, in an informed...